Hunting Webshells: Linux and Windows Commands

Log analysis is one of the techniques used to hunt for web shells (Apache, IIS, etc.). We will not devote a great deal of time to analyzing web shell logs.

Instead, we will use the Log Parser Studio tool to analyze IIS web logs, including the tools mentioned in the previous section as well as native built-in OS commands and/or scripting languages, in order to locate hidden web shells in the web server’s directories.

Before moving on to the actual tools, let’s examine some fundamental Linux web server commands for locating web shells.

Note that these are not the only techniques for locating web shells. Only a few will be addressed.

In the following sections, we will examine techniques and tools for attempting to locate four web shells on a particular Linux web server.

  • Two files are not obfuscated, while two files are.

  • Additionally, two files have the.php file extension and two web shells have the.txt file extension.

This is done for completion’s sake and to confirm successful detection.

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We see from the previous pictures the following web shells reside on the server:

  • locus7s.php (/var/www/html/)
  • unknown.txt (/var/www/html/js/)
  • ss8.txt (/var/www/html/images/)
  • unknown2.php (/var/www/html/css/)

Linux commands

The following command will locate new files that have been uploaded to the web server within the past 24 hours. This is beneficial if you are committed to daily web shell scans on web servers in your environment.

find . -type f -name '*.php' -mtime -1

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With the preceding command, we instruct Linux to search for files (-type f) within the current directory (.) that match the following criteria: any PHP files (-name '*.php') that are less than 24 hours old (-mtime -1).

The -mtime file attribute stores the time and date of the file’s last modification. Only the content, not the attributes themselves. This information can be viewed by using the command:

ls -l

We can do the same for txt files, or any files for that matter:

find . -type f -name '*.txt' -mtime -1

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The preceding command examines nothing within the files. It only checks the last modified time of the file contents at the search location.

Let’s take a look at some Linux commands that look for suspicious code within a file.

We will modify the existing Linux command with xargs and grep in order to locate suspicious code within the files.

Below is a brief explanation of both arguments:

  • xargs generates and executes command lines based on standard input.

  • grep - displays lines that match a pattern

This command will search for instances of the PHP eval() function. Execute the following command to search for PHP web shells.

find . -type f -name '*.php' | xargs grep -l "eval *("

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If we search for TXT files rather than PHP files, we will get the same results as before:

find . -type f -name '*.txt' | xargs grep -l "eval *("

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Let’s make one more change to this Linux command, and then look for another PHP function. This time around, we will look for the base64_decode() function.

Let’s have a look at the result while we search for this function inside of any PHP files that might be on the web server:

find . -type f -name '*.php' | xargs grep -l "base64_decode*("

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According to the output from the previous command, we can see that this time there was just one file detected, and it is the file that is not encrypted.

We will investigate more techniques that can assist in the filing of disguised web shells.

PHP-based web shells and trojans frequently make use of the eval() and base64_decode() functions of the PHP programming language. Other PHP functions, such as str_rot13() and gzinflate, are utilized in this example.

You can execute a single line of code that will search for any and all PHP functions, even those that are frequently located in malicious PHP scripts.

find . -type f -name '*.php' | xargs egrep -i "(mail|fsockopen|pfsockopen|exec|system|passthru|eval|base64_decode) *\("

The Linux command that you saw earlier will utilize egrep to search for a number of different keywords within the files that are stored on the server. Everything that scores a hit will be shown on the terminal as soon as it happens.

The following is a concise explanation of each function that hasn’t been covered up until this point:

  • mail() - can be used to send spam
  • fsockopen() - can be used to open a network connect to send remote requests
  • pfsockopen() - same as fsockopen()
  • exec() - this is for command execution
  • system() - can be used with exec()
  • passthru() - can be used with exec()

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Because we are just looking for PHP files, it was able to find both of our web shells, which both include the extension PHP in their file names. If we run the same search for web shells that have been saved as TXT, will the results be the same?

find . -type f -name '*.txt' | xargs egrep -i
"(mail|fsockopen|pfsockopen|exec|system|passthru|eval|
base64_decode) *\("

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The Linux commands are, for the most part, performing as expected.

Now, we’re going to show you a PHP backdoor that’s completely hidden and obfuscated. Within the code, there are no PHP functions that are readily apparent.

Some information about this file:

  • The following directory is where the save for this file was made: /var/www/html/v1/fonts/

Unknown PHP backdoor

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The output that we obtain when we run the final Linux command, which is a one-liner, is shown below:

sudo find . -type f -name '*.txt' | xargs egrep -i
"(mail|fsockopen|pfsockopen|exec|system|passthru|eval|
base64_decode) *\("

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As was to be anticipated, the command did not find anything. We can only hope that some of the other techniques will be able to assist us in our search for web shells like this.

Windows commands

PowerShell’s Get-ChildItem and Select-String cmdlets allow us to do tasks similar to those of the grep command on Windows, allowing us to search for keywords within files stored in the file system.

In this example, all we will do is go over PowerShell’s one-line implementation of the grep command:

get-childitem -recurse -include "*.php" | select-string  "(mail|fsockopen|pfsockopen|exec\b|system\b|passthru|eval\b|base64_decode)" | % {"$($_.filename):$($_.line)"} | out-gridview

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An explanation of this command in PowerShell, in a nutshell:

  • Get-ChildItem is the command that corresponds to the dir command in CMD and the ls command in Linux.
  • -Recurse will traverse all of the directories that are beneath the root directory.
  • Specifying a file extension with the -Include switch instructs PowerShell to examine only that particular file type.
  • | (pipe), the usage of which is comparable to that of Linux and CMD.
  • The Select-String command is Linux’s equivalent to the grep command.
  • The \b character denotes a word boundary, which tells PowerShell to halt processing exactly at that word.
  • The output of the percent symbol "%{$($_.filename:$($ .line)"} provides the name of the file and the line in which the word was discovered.
  • If you use the Out-Gridview command, the output will be shown in a grid view rather than in console format.

The results of the previous PowerShell command are displayed below for your perusal:

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The preceding program can be changed to point to the actual web logs and scan for any keywords within the logs to identify any evidence of maliciousness. The grep command in Linux works exactly the same way.

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