Fundamental Cybersecurity Concepts (172)

The Importance of Data Integrity in Information Security

Organizations acquire and store massive amounts of data. Numerous critical business procedures within the organization depend on the accuracy and comprehensiveness of this stored data. There are several ways in which the data’s accuracy can be harmed. If this data is altered or deleted by a third party without authorization, the consequences for the business could be severe, especially if the compromised information was of a sensitive nature. Thus, it is crucial for a company to protect the accuracy of the data it stores by implementing the necessary security measures. This article covers in-depth information about data integrity along with details on its significance, various types, and several techniques that can be used for the preservation and verification of data integrity.

The Application of Artificial Intelligence in the Field of Cybersecurity

Artificial intelligence is increasingly being used in almost every sector of business and industry globally. The adoption of artificial intelligence in the cybersecurity sector has also been influenced by this rise. The cybersecurity landscape has seen a tremendous shift as a result of AI. In today’s business contexts, there is a significant and quickly expanding surface for cyberattacks. This indicates that more than just human interaction is required for cybersecurity posture analysis and improvement within a company. Since these technologies can quickly analyze millions of data sets and find a wide range of cyber threats, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning are now becoming crucial to information security. Nowadays, AI is being included into a wide range of products and applications that are employed in effective threat identification and cyberattack prevention. This article discusses the foundational ideas of artificial intelligence, its function and applications in the field of cybersecurity, and how AI can be applied to enhance an organization’s overall security posture.

How to Install and Set-up Sysmon for Windows Endpoint Devices

Sysmon is a component of the Microsoft Sysinternals Suite that runs as a kernel driver and may monitor and report on system events. Businesses frequently utilize it as part of their tracking and logging systems.

Introduction to Event Logs in Windows

Windows logs include a plethora of structured data from many log sources. Event logs capture events that occur during system execution to analyze system activity and troubleshoot faults. This blog article will teach you about common logs and how to examine crucial events in your system.

SIM Cloning: What is it?

SIM cloning simply involves making a copy of the original SIM from it. It resembles switching SIM cards. Software is utilized to duplicate the genuine SIM card in this technically complex process. The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI), is used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile telephony, and the encryption key of the victim is accessed. The fraudster may take control and use the mobile number to track, monitor, listen to calls, place calls, and send messages by cloning the SIM.

Endpoint Protection Platform (EPP): What is it?

Because ransomware attacks target the endpoint, encrypt its data, and demand a payment to decrypt them, endpoint protection is more crucial than ever. The COVID-19-driven shift to remote work has also raised endpoints’ susceptibility to cyber threats and turned them into an organization’s first line of defense. An extensive endpoint security plan that can handle the contemporary cybersecurity concerns that endpoints encounter must be created and implemented by organizations. And a vital part of this approach is the implementation of an endpoint protection platform (EPP).

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Swapping: What is it?

SIM swapping, often referred to as SIM splitting, SIM jacking, or SIM hijacking, is the process of transferring control over your mobile device from your current SIM to another SIM under the control of a cybercriminal. Through this deception, a cybercriminal acquires access to your private information relating to your finances.

A Hotfix: What Is It?

A hotfix is an immediate repair for a problem or defect that often skips the standard software development cycle. Hotfixes are often applied to high- or severe-priority defects that need to be fixed very away, such as a fault that compromises the software’s functioning or security. Because there is a lot to test and not enough time to accomplish it, software development teams always produce flaws or bugs. The company ranks reported problems and flaws as critical, severe, high, medium, or low as they come in (or other similar terms). Depending on the release timetable, critical flaws typically call for a hotfix.

What Security Elements are Crucial for Creating a Trusted Operating System (OS)?

An operating system that offers enough support for multilayer security and proof of accuracy to satisfy a certain set of government standards is referred to as a trusted operating system (TOS).

Hyper-V terminology

Before discussing how to secure Hyper-V, below is the terminology of Hyper-V and related technologies. This article will give a comprehensive explanation for these terms, not only in the context of this book but also in the context of how they are typically used in legal documents and by professionals.

Hyper-V security

Many people consider security to be a clearly evident necessity. Others’ needs may not be as obvious. Many decision-makers don’t think that the product of their company needs extensive protection. Many administrators think the default security measures are adequate. While certain organizations’ needs may not necessitate a rigorous program of safeguards, no one can avoid doing their research.

Preventing Security breaches using Two-Factor authentication

As we continue to use our phones, laptops, and tablets as the hub for all of our digital lives, it becomes increasingly important to protect these devices. Setting passcodes or passwords alone can no longer suffice in protecting the sensitive data housed in our devices, this has given rise to a need for additional layers of stricter and safer controls to fight against unwanted breaches to our critical data, this is where two-factor authentication comes in.

Privacy Information Management System (ISO 27701)

Businesses are under pressure from customers to be more transparent about the data they gather, and authorities are responding. Stakeholders may be assured that your firm takes data privacy seriously by looking for ISO 27701 certification. Consumers produce enormous amounts of data every day in today’s globally linked environment. But worries about how businesses collect, utilize, and safeguard this data are growing. Governments all around the globe are enacting comprehensive legislation to guarantee the privacy and security of personal data in response to popular demand. These include, but are not limited to, the California Consumer Privacy Act, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and the General Data Protection Law (LGPD) of Brazil (CCPA).

Bypass UAC using metasploit

UAC stands for User Account Control. User Account Control is a mandatory access control enforcement facility of the window machine that helps to prevent malicious software from damaging a PC. UAC’s job is to prevent a program from making changes to its system without authorization from the administrator. If a program is trying to do something which is a system-related change, it will require administrator rights. If the administrator does not approve the modifications, then the changes will not be implemented, and Windows remains unmodified.

Stay Safe and Secure While Working Remotely

As 2019 came to a close, organizations all around the world underwent a significant transformation in how they carried out their business. Nearly every corporation was impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, and each one struggled to maintain operations while also introducing a new work culture known as remote work or work from home. Remote work became the new normal for many organizations with many analysts predicting that remote work is the future and it is here to stay.

Safeguard your Sensitive Data with Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs)

A non-disclosure agreement (NDA) is a contract that is enforceable under the law and creates a confidential relationship. The signatory(s) agree that any sensitive information they may collect will not be disclosed to any third parties. A confidentiality agreement is another name for an NDA.

Tshark: Wireshark's Command-Line Interface Alternative

Wireshark is a packet analyzer and sniffer. It captures network traffic on the local network and stores it for further analysis. This tool is mostly used by system administrators and IT professionals to troubleshoot network errors in real-time. However, Wireshark also provides a powerful command-line tool called Tshark for people who enjoy working on the command line interface. Tshark also lets you capture packet data from a live network, and read packets from a previously captured file. The native capture file format of TShark is libpcap, which is also used by tcpdump and other utilities.

Dissecting Three-Way Handshake in Wireshark

The TCP three-way handshake is a three-step sequence that must be completed between a client and a server in order to create a safe and trustworthy TCP connection. In this blog post we are going to analyze how does a three-way handshake looks like, and discuss the flags and packet bytes. Let’s start with taking a look at the syn packet…

Get to Know the Features of Biometric Factors!

This blog page will discuss the characteristics of biometric factors such as universality, uniqueness, permanence, collectability, performance, acceptability, and circumvention.

The Parkerian Hexad: A More Complete Set of Information Security Elements

The Parkerian hexad is a set of information security elements that are comprised of confidentiality, integrity, availability, possession/control, authenticity, and utility. As you might already guess there are three additional attributes that are proposed by Donn B. Parker. We can say that the Parkerian hexad is a more complicated variant of the traditional CIA triad. In this blog post, you will be provided with the parkerian hexad and its components.

Don't be Fooled by Imitations. Protect your Data from Evil Twin Attacks

Wireless access to the internet has increased and evolved over the years with the advances in technology. Free and easily accessible WiFi networks are available in public places such as coffee shops, hotel lobbies, airports, shopping malls, and much more. People are naturally inclined to connect to these networks to check their emails, browse the internet or perform any other important task. However public WiFi networks much like any other publicly available service might not be totally secure and carry their potential risks.

Formalize your Agreement with an MOU

An agreement between two or more parties that is detailed in a formal document is known as a memorandum of understanding (MOU). Although it does not have legal force, it expresses the parties’ will to proceed with a contract. As it outlines the parameters and goals of the negotiations, the MOU may be viewed as the beginning point for negotiations. These memos are most frequently used in international treaty negotiations, but they may also be applied in risky corporate negotiations like merger discussions.

Don't be the Next Victim: Understand the Attack Lifecycle

There are seven steps in the attack lifecycle that are present in most breaches. Although not every attack includes all seven steps, this lifecycle can be modified to meet any incidence. Additionally, an attack’s phases don’t necessarily occur in the sequence that is indicated by the attack lifecycle. This chapter introduces the idea of the attack lifecycle since it is crucial to consider occurrences in relation to the various stages of the lifecycle. You’ll be able to comprehend the context of every newly uncovered action in relation to the overall compromise more clearly by thinking in terms of the different phases. Additionally, you should consider attacker activity in each phase of your repair planning.

Data Stewards: Improve Data Utilization with Fresh Approaches

The organization’s data governance plan establishes the rules for data usage and security, which are then enforced by a data steward. Data stewards provide a blend of data science, engineering, and communication abilities to work with teams throughout the organization and promote fresh approaches to improve data utilization. Being a point of contact between the business-focused and IT sides of the organization is one of the data steward’s most important contributions. In order to effectively cooperate with many stakeholders, they must not only be knowledgeable about the technical elements of data management but also display good interpersonal skills.

Who Are Data Stewards & Why Does Data Stewardship Matter?

Businesses are becoming more and more aware of the need of using data to inform both short- and long-term strategic choices. Finding useful uses for this data is even more urgent due to the growth in the number and variety of data that a company processes.Businesses have turned to data governance and data stewardship as essential components of their overall data management strategy to guarantee they are making the greatest use of all available resources. These fundamental data ownership tasks are being transferred to data professionals, such as data stewards who manage data stewardship inside an organization.

A Security Professional's Guide to the Diamond Model

Every enterprise deals with a variety of security risks to its valued assets. In order to compromise the security of these assets, malicious adversaries can make use of security flaws in the infrastructure of the company. For the company to effectively detect and stop these cyberattacks, its security response must be robust and resilient. Cyber threat intelligence is one of the instruments that the company can use to improve the resilience of its incident response efforts. The objective of cyber threat intelligence is to disseminate knowledge about the motives, capabilities, tactics, and methodologies of various cyber threats in order to direct the selection of remediation strategies. Cyber threat intelligence is a tool used by threat analysts to collect information about these threats, analyze this information, and then deliver the findings to key stakeholders. The diamond model of intrusion analysis enables the threat analysts to present this information in a manner that is organized, effective and simple to comprehend. This article presents the basics of the diamond model, its main components, optional features, and how this model can be used by security professionals.

Introduction to SUID

The level of access that users and system processes have to files in Linux is governed by file permissions, attributes, and ownership. This is done to make sure that only legitimate users and programs are able to access particular files and directories.

An Overview of Due Diligence and Due Care in Cyber Security

The top management of a company bears primary responsibility for the safety and security of its valued assets. Therefore, the backing of top-level management and their understanding of the many cyber risks faced by the company are the cornerstones of an effective security management programs in a company. The senior management of the organization must be aware of the many risks to its assets, as well as those risks’ consequences and potential financial losses.

Wireshark HTTP Request Analysis

Understanding how to assess HTTP may help with numerous security activities, such as detecting attack vectors, recognizing malicious HTTP requests, and detecting user-agent abnormalities. In this blog post, we are going to learn HTTP requests by capturing packets in Wireshark. Let’s start with a quick refresher on the most important characteristics of HTTP.

What is Personally Identifiable Information (PII)

A collection of information known as personally identifiable information (PII) can be used to identify a particular person. It is classified as sensitive information and is the data used in identity theft. The user’s name, address, and birthday can be considered PII, as can other private information like their complete name, address, social security number, and financial information. PII is a target for attackers in a data breach because of its high value when sold on darknet markets.

Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (S/MIME)

Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (S/MIME) is an industry standard for email encryption and signing that is commonly used by organizations to improve email security. Most corporate email clients support S/MIME. S/MIME encrypts and digitally signs emails to confirm that they are verified and that their contents have not been changed in any manner.

SOC Security Functions

In this article we will discuss the security functions a SOC is responsible for.

Getting started with Security Operations Center (SOC)

A group of IT experts and information security specialists that analyse, monitor, and defend a company against cyber-attacks work out of a centralized location known as a security operations centre (SOC). SOC teams handle incident response while continuously keeping an eye on networks, internet traffic, servers, desktops, databases, endpoint devices, applications, and other IT assets in case of security incidents. SOC personnel typically possess all the knowledge and abilities necessary to recognize and address cybersecurity events. To share information regarding occurrences with the proper stakeholders, they work in tandem with other departments or teams. The majority of SOCs run continuously, with staff members working in shifts to oversee log activity and minimize threats. Some businesses use outside vendors to handle their SOC. The use of SOCs is a crucial tactic for reducing the expenses associated with data breaches. They support organizations in quickening their response to intrusions and continuously enhance threat detection and prevention techniques.

Introduction to Web Caching and Web Cache Poisoning

Web applications such as e-commerce websites or websites that use Content delivery networks receive a large number of user requests from around the world. In order to deal with growing user requests and balance the load of the main server, web applications use different caching techniques. Caches are typically employed by the use of proxy servers or web browsers to store files such as images, videos, or audio files and different frequently accessed files in the local storage. Web caching is an effective technique that is used to handle growing user requests, improve network capacity, and provide a seamless user experience. This article covers the basics of web caching, how the attackers perform web cache poisoning attacks, the impact of web cache poisoning, and the recommended mitigation techniques.

Agentless Log Collection: Microsoft WEC and WEF

In this blog post, we are going to explore Windows Event Forwarder (WEF) and Windows Event Collector (WEC) which you can utilize in your agentless log collection efforts. First, we will discover Windows Event Forwarder and Windows Event Collector, then illustrate a basic XML analysis. Lastly, we will also take a look at how to configure subscriptions.

Analyzing ICMP traffic with Wireshark

In today’s blog post we are going to take a look at what an internet control message protocol request and replies can be identified using Wireshark.

Security Orchestration Automation and Response (SOAR)

By gathering threat data from many sources, security orchestration, automation, and response (SOAR) assists enterprises in automating security activities, particularly incident response. It may also respond to minor events without the need for human intervention. SOAR solutions assist security companies in defining, prioritizing, standardizing, and automating response activities, as well as improving operational efficiency. Here are listed a few ways SOAR may aid in the optimization of security operations…

Network protocols: The Foundation of Digital Communication - Syslog

The System Logging Protocol (Syslog) is a standard message format that network devices can use to interact with a logging server. It was created primarily to make network device monitoring simple. A Syslog agent may be used by devices to send out notification messages under a variety of scenarios. These log messages contain a timestamp, a severity rating, a device ID (including IP address), and event-specific information. Despite its flaws, the Syslog protocol is extensively used because it is easy to develop and very open-ended, allowing for a variety of proprietary implementations and hence the ability to monitor practically any connected device. Syslog is compatible with all Unix, Linux, and other *nix operating systems, as well as MacOS. Although Windows-based servers do not natively support Syslog, various third-party applications are available to allow Windows devices to connect with a Syslog server.

Blockchain Application in Cybersecurity

Blockchain is a distributed, decentralised digital ledger that records transactions as blocks. Because of its immutability and availability to only authorised individuals, this ledger aids in the storage of information in a transparent manner.

Enhance your Decision Making by using the Intelligence Cycle

What is the intelligence cycle? In the most basic terms, the intelligence cycle is an important step that we can utilize in most security organizations to convert raw data into polished intelligence for judgment. The procedure is a five or six-step way of imparting clarification to a changing and unclear situation. In this blog post, we are going to cover these steps of the cycle of intelligence so that we can enhance decision-making capabilities more efficiently.

An Overview into Website Mechanisms and Vulnerabilities

For cyber security professionals, it is important to gain an understanding of the various web technologies. Many cyber-attacks are carried out on websites and web servers for various reasons. It may be to retrieve credentials to get access to systems, to gain Personal Identifiable Information (PII). Or it may be to simply use a website to have users click on links that execute malicious code or that link to another, malicious, website. Cyber security professionals need to know how to protect systems and businesses against these kinds of attacks.

SNMP Versions and Security Levels

SNMP is the acronym for Simple Network Management Protocol. It is a network protocol used for network management. SNMP operates in three different levels or versions. These include SNMPv1, SNMPv2, and SNMPv SNMPv3 is the most recent and most secure version of the SNMP.

Network protocols: The Foundation of Digital Communication - SNMP

If a business has 1000 devices, checking each one individually every day to see if they are operating correctly or not is a time-consuming operation. Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is used to help with this.

Networking Tools: Protocol Analysers

Protocol analysers are essential tools for embedded system designers. They let engineers obtain insight into the data that goes through the communication channel or bus, such as USB, I2C, SPI, CAN, and so on. Some systems record this information and then show it after capture, whilst others display the data as it is transmitted in real-time. As a result, it’s simple to see why protocol analysers are so vital in embedded design, development, and debugging processes.

Basic Steps to Network Baselining

Baselining is the practice of analysing the network on a regular basis to ensure that it is functioning properly. It generates a number of reports that provide extensive information on the network.

An Example of Authentication Attacks

Authentication attacks try to guess the correct username and password. Brute Force attacks, the most basic type of authentication attack, aim to acquire access to an account by attempting random passwords. Threat actors utilize algorithms to automate this process, which can result in millions of passwords guesses every day.

Basic Authentication Models

The first line of protection is authentication. It is the process of determining whether or not a user is who they claim to be. Not to be confused with the phase that comes before it, authorization, authentication is just a technique of validating digital identification, so users have the amount of rights they need to access or accomplish a job. There are several authentication systems available, ranging from passwords to fingerprints, to check a user’s identity before granting access. This offers another layer of security and avoids security shortcomings such as data leaks. However, it is frequently the combination of many methods of authentication that offers safe system reinforcement against potential attacks.

An Insight into Multi Factor Authentication

The process of authenticating a user’s identification is known as authentication. When you log in to a website, the website uses your username and password to verify your identity. You will be unable to log in if the website is unable to authenticate your identity. There are several methods for confirming a user’s identity. Using a username and password is the most popular technique. Passwords can be guessed or stolen, making this the least secure option. Other technologies, like fingerprint and iris scanners, are becoming increasingly common.

An Overview of Premise Systems and their Weaknesses

A premise system is a sort of security system that is installed in a building or other type of location. The system is intended to keep unauthorised people out of the premises and to keep the inhabitants safe. The technology may also be used to monitor resident activity and detect intruders. Office buildings, factories, warehouses, and retail outlets are all places where premises systems are employed. They’re also common in residential settings like flats and houses. The amount of security offered by a premise system is determined by the type of system deployed. Door and window sensors, as well as motion detectors, are common components of basic systems. Cameras, alarm systems, and access control are examples of more advanced systems.

What are ICS and SCADA and Why Must they be Secured?

Industrial control systems (ICS) are assets and accompanying instruments that aid in the supervision of industrial operations. Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, which assist organisations in controlling dispersed assets; distributed control systems (DCS), which control production systems in a local area; and programmable logic controllers (PLCs), which enable discrete control of applications using regulatory control, are three types of ICS.

A General Overview of Threat Modeling Workflow

The threat modeling activity has a consistent plan that may be broken down into many basic elements. In this blog post, we are going to give a basic outline of a threat modeling process.

Analyzing ARP Responses in Wireshark

In a previous blog post, we made an introduction to powerful traffic analyzer Wireshark by identifying what an ARP request looks like. In this blog post, we will continue network traffic analysis by taking a look at what an ARP reply traffic looks like in Wireshark. Upon completion of this blog page, you will enhance your network analysis skills as a security operations analyst.

The Starting Foundations of a Software Security Education Program

In this blog post, we will cover the necessity of developing an appsec awareness and education program and how it may assist to equip the staff to integrate security into all development activities.

Securing the Internet of Things (IoT) Devices

It’s critical for security analysts to grasp the substantial influence IoT devices can have on expanding a company’s attack surface. As companies place greater trust in smart devices to provide insight into their resources, they must take extra care to safeguard their systems and ensure the authenticity, validity, and accessibility of the data that travels across them.

Practical Introduction to Wireshark

A packet-level examination is the best technique to comprehend the dissemination of data in network communications. In this blog post we are going to take a look at the benefits of packet-level analysis, and make a quick introduction to Wireshark GUI referencing their counterparts in Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model.

Benefits of Sinkholing

In this blog post, we are going to learn what sinkholing is and how it can help secure our networking environments.

Embedded Systems Security

An embedded system is a computer system that performs a specific purpose within a broader mechanical or electrical system, sometimes with real-time processing requirements. It is frequently incorporated as part of a larger device that includes hardware and mechanical components. Many items in regular usage today are controlled by embedded systems. Devices with embedded systems include the following: automobiles, telephones, digital watches, rich media players, video game consoles, computers in numerous appliances, point-of-sale terminals, digital cameras, GPS receivers, medical electronics, autopilots, and aeronautics.

The Vulnerabilities of IoT Devices

The demand for safe and dependable internet-of-things (IoT) devices is greater than ever as the world becomes more interconnected. Unfortunately, several IoT devices have security weaknesses that make them open to attack. The fact that many IoT devices are created with little to no security in consideration is a significant problem. This exposes them to a variety of assaults, including denial-of-service attacks and malware and viruses. The fact that many IoT devices are not adequately updated or maintained is another issue. They frequently run out-of-date software, which implies that attackers can take advantage of them. And last, a lot of IoT devices are just not made to be secure.

Biometric Readers and their Accuracy

The science and technology of monitoring and interpreting biological data is known as biometrics. Biometrics in information technology refers to techniques used for authentication and identification that measure and analyse physical attributes of the human body, including DNA, fingerprints, eye retinas and irises, voice patterns, face patterns, and hand measurements. Throughout history, people have employed biometrics. People used to recognize one another in the past, for instance, based on their distinctive physical characteristics. Biometrics are utilized nowadays for security and identity purposes. For instance, several nations now provide biometric passports that include each user’s specific biometric information.


As the world becomes increasingly digital, the need for strong security measures is more important than ever. One such security measure is WPA3, which was designed to replace the WPA2 protocol. WPA3 features improved security through the use of Perfect Forward Secrecy or Forward Secrecy. Perfect Forward Secrecy or Forward Secrecy is a security measure that ensures that even if one key is compromised, the rest of the keys remain secure. This is accomplished by using a different key for each session. WPA3 uses this security measure to make it more difficult for attackers to gain access to sensitive data.

Wireless attacks

Any malicious attack that targets a wireless network or devices that utilise wireless technology is known as a wireless attack. Wireless assaults can be used to get unwanted access to sensitive information or to impair a wireless network’s normal operation. Wireless assaults come in a variety of forms, some of which are given below.

Introduction to Patching

Security patches and software upgrades are the first locations cybercriminals seek for weaknesses in previous versions that they may target. When an attacker notices that an issue has been resolved, anyone who has not applied the solution becomes a target. Having all of your applications up-to-date can minimize the vast majority of known online threats. In this blog post, we age going to learn what is patching, and what is a patch management lifecycle.

Understanding Bug Bounty Hunting

As we already know, a weakness is a flaw in a program that lets a hostile individual conduct an unauthorized activity or obtain access to data. Wouldn’t it be nice if a software application company remediate a vulnerability in a technology or service it provides before a malicious actor does? Well, you can achieve this in many ways such as hiring internal security professionals, paying for a penetration testing as a service platform and so on. In today’s blog post, we are going to add another group of skilled individuals who are called bug bounty hunters and define who they are, what is bug bounty hunting, what is a bounty-hunting program and what are some differences between a vulnerability rewards program (VRP) and A vulnerability disclosure program (VDP) are.

The Basics of Securing Workstations: Virtual

A system strengthening strategy is a dynamic endeavor and needs continual assessment of the network and local assets. It is vital that we examine what we can do at the endpoints rather than depending just on the identification of an exploit.

Network protocols: The Foundation of Digital Communication - IMAP, POP3, SMTP, RDP and VNC

In our previous blog post on network protocols we covered the definition of a protocol, why they are important and began explaining some common protocols; TCP/IP and UDP. These are important network protocols as most other protocols rely on TCP/IP or UDP to perform their role. Our second blog post on the subject of network protocols covered some additional network protocols and their reliance on either TCP/IP or UDP (or both). In this blog post, we continue to discuss network protocols that rely on either TCP/IP, UDP, or both.

Vulnerability Scanners: Result Accuracies

This blog page will provide you with what is validation process, what are possible vulnerability scanner results, and why vulnerability findings may be misleading.

The Basics of Securing Workstations: Physical

In this blog page, we are going to take a look at what is an endpoint device, what are three levels of security, the areas cybercriminals are most likely to target, and lastly how to harden our workstations.

Implement Physical Security to Create a Safe and Secure Environment

It’s easy to forget that physical security is still a crucial aspect of keeping our information safe as our lives become increasingly online. Physical security is more crucial than ever in a cyber ecosystem. Consider this: if a hacker has physical access to your computer, they will be able to overcome any software security mechanisms. As a result, it’s critical to take precautions to protect your computer and work environment. Here are a few suggestions for ensuring physical safety: - When you’re not using your computer, keep it in a closed room or office. If you must leave your computer alone, ensure that it is secured and that the screen is covered.

Basic Wireless Technologies and an Example of their Exploits

Wireless technologies allow two or more devices to interact without the use of physical touch or a connected connection. Mobile phones, computer networking, wireless sensor networks, and other applications use wireless technology. There are a variety of wireless technologies available, each with its own set of benefits and drawbacks. Bluetooth, WiFi, and infrared are the most prevalent wireless technologies. Bluetooth is a wireless communication technology that allows two devices to connect over a short distance. Bluetooth is found in a variety of devices, including cell phones, headsets, and wireless keyboards and mouse.

Secure Browsing 101

In this blog article, we will discuss the basics of how to safely use web browsers.

An Overview of File Inclusion Vulnerabilities

Web applications are used for a wide range of purposes by individuals and different organizations. These web applications provide multiple benefits to their users as well as various functionalities. They are, nonetheless, vulnerable to malicious adversaries’ attacks. The exploitation of some of these security weaknesses can impede the organization’s key business processes, resulting in significant financial losses. As a result, it is very important to identify and fix such vulnerabilities discovered in the web application. File inclusion vulnerabilities are one of the most common types of vulnerabilities. This article discusses the many forms of file inclusion vulnerabilities, as well as their consequences and how to protect against them.

Secure Your Servers With Our Advice

Servers need particular security implementations, because obtaining the information stored on the servers is the most profitable objective for an attacker. This blog post will help you secure your servers with simple and clear guidelines.

Network Sniffing: the Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

The act of monitoring and capturing data packets as they travel across a network is referred to as network sniffing. This can be done for various reasons, including network troubleshooting, monitoring user behavior, and stealing sensitive data. Network sniffing can be used to identify the source of error when troubleshooting a network.

Keep Your Security Posture Strong With Vulnerability Management

In this article we will describe what vulnerabilities are, and best practices for managing them.

Reduce API Security Risks by Following Best Practices

A set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for developing application software is known as an application programming interface (API). It represents a set of communication protocols between different software components. A good API makes it easy to create a software by supplying all of the necessary building components, which the programmer then assembles. A web-based system, operating system, database system, computer hardware, or software library may all have APIs. The API allows a programmer creating an application program to send a request to the operating system. The operating system then forwards the request to the appropriate software component, which completes the task and returns a response to the programmer.

Federated Identity Management and Single-Sign-On (SSO)

Employees in an organization are provided access to various resources and applications in order to perform their day-to-day responsibilities. Instead of requiring the user to create a different set of credentials to access each application or different resources, the organization employs SSO (Single-Sign-On) and federated identity management technologies which results in smoother access to these resources/applications. These technologies when implemented correctly, increase functionality and protect organization’s valuable assets. This article covers the federated identity management concepts, different frameworks used for its implementation, and the security challenges related to it.

Keep Your Secrets Safe With Cryptography and Steganography

There are different kind of forms of covert communication that involve the use of any medium to hide something. Cryptography and steganography are often used together to conceal crucial data. Both have nearly the same aim at their heart, which is to safeguard a message or information from third parties. They do, however, safeguard the information via a completely different approach.

Don't Be Bait for Phishing Attacks!

Phishing, like fishing, is a technique used to “fish” for usernames, passwords, and other sensitive information from a “sea” of users. Because hackers frequently use the letter “ph” instead of the letter “f,” they were initially dubbed “phreaks.” Phishing (pronounced “fishing”) is one of the social engineering attacks that attempt to steal your money or identity by tricking you into disclosing personal information – such as credit card numbers, bank account information, or passwords – on websites that appear to be legitimate.

Password Cracking Techniques, Tools and Protection Recommendations

A password is a protected string of characters that is used to authenticate a user. Passwords are the most widely used authentication method, yet they are also the weakest. Users sometimes choose passwords that are exceedingly easy to guess or are based on personal information about the user (e.g. their birth month or the name of their pet). They may even scribble it down on a piece of paper, hide it in a location where it may be easily taken, or share it with others. Organizations that utilize passwords as the primary or one of the sources of authentication should implement proper security controls to prevent them from being compromised as it can have severe implications. This article will go over the basics of password cracking, as well as the techniques and tools used to crack passwords and password protection mechanisms.

An Explanation of Knowledge and Behavior-Based Detection Within an IDS

An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a type of security device that analyzes data packets and compares them against known signatures. The goal of an IDS is to detect intrusions before they cause damage. In this blog post we will explain how an IDS can identify harmful events using Knowledge-based detections and Behavior-based detections, along with the different aspects, benefits, and drawbacks.

Root Login vs. Sudo

This blog will explain why you should quit logging in as root at all times and provide the best security alternative to doing so.

Social Engineering: Basic Principals, Attacks, Phases and Prevention

People, processes, and technology are the three essential components of a security program. In order to provide effective security protection to an organization’s assets, all three components must function together. Humans, according to several security experts, are the weakest link in the security chain. Human errors can sometimes have a devastating impact on an organization’s security even if you have the best technologies in place defending your assets. These errors might occur as a result of carelessness, a lack of security awareness education, or excessive permissions. According to research conducted by Stanford University, nearly 88 percent of all data breaches are the result of human error. When it comes to defending your company against various attack vectors, it is critical to keep the human factor in mind. This article goes over the basics of social engineering attacks and how to prevent them.

An Introduction to Active Directory and how PowerShell can be used as a Security Auditor

The network operating system (NOS) is a software-based networked environment that allows many workstations and computing devices to share resources. In 1990, Microsoft released Windows NT 3.0 that featured a NOS environment. Many aspects of the LAN Manager protocols and the OS/2 operating system were merged in this product. Over the next few years, the Windows NT NOS slowly evolved into Active Directory that was first formally deployed in Windows Server 2000.

Introduction to Debuggers and Disassemblers

Reverse Engineering (RE) has been the leading technique for understanding the structure and operation of malicious programs and what they’re programmed to do for a very long time.

Build a Safe Testing Environment for Suspicious Files and URL's

Sandboxing is a technique in which you build an isolated test environment, or “sandbox,” in which you execute or “detonate” a suspicious file or URL attached to an email. The sandbox should be a safe, virtual environment that closely mimics the CPU of your production servers.

Security as a Service (SECaaS)

PSECaaS (Security as a Service) is best defined as a cloud-based approach for outsourcing cybersecurity services. SECaaS, like Software as a Solution, is a subscription-based security service hosted by cloud providers. For corporate infrastructures, Security as a Service solutions have grown in popularity as a method to relieve in-house security team duties, scale security demands as the organization expands, and avoid the costs and upkeep of on-premise alternatives.

Platform as a Service (Paas)

Platform as a service (PaaS) is a cloud computing model in which users receive hardware and software resources from third-party vendors over the internet. These tools are often required for application development. As a result, PaaS eliminates the need for developers to set up in-house gear and software in order to create or execute a new application.

Software as a Service (SaaS)

Software as a service (SaaS) is undeniably changing the way we think about and use software. We no longer have to install and maintain software on our own computers or devices; instead, we may get it over the internet, generally for a fee. This move has huge repercussions for organizations as well as individual individuals.

Linux Exploitation: Basic Linux Shellcoding

Shellcoding is a form of system exploitation in which an attacker inserts malicious code into a program or file in order to execute arbitrary commands. Shellcode is often used to create a backdoor in a system, allowing the attacker to gain access and control. In many cases, the attacker will encode the shellcode to avoid detection.

You Need to Implement The NIST Cybersecurity Framework, Now!

NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technologies), a division of the United States Department of Commerce, is in charge of developing metrics, standards, and technology to promote innovation and competitiveness in the field of science and technology. With the number of cybersecurity attacks on the rise, the NIST Cyber Security Framework was created to assist various organizations in improving their security posture. NIST CSF was created in conjunction with security professionals from the private sector and government agencies, and it is currently being used by a growing number of businesses throughout the world to design their own security frameworks. This article delves into the specifics of this framework as well as the advantages of implementing it.

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

If your company, like many others, is always searching for methods to enhance efficiency and save expenses. Moving to a cloud-based infrastructure is one approach to do this. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) is basically cloud computing and allows enterprises to access, manage, and use infrastructure resources in a scalable, pay-as-you-go approach. IaaS is an excellent choice for companies who want to shift to the cloud but don’t want to give up the control and flexibility that comes with owning their own infrastructure. You may decide how much or how little of your infrastructure to migrating to the cloud using IaaS.

PowerShell Basics for Security Professionals

PowerShell is a Microsoft.Net framework-based open source command-line shell and scripting language. PowerShell is a popular tool for automating tasks and configuring systems. IT professionals use PowerShell to carry out their tasks in the same way as Command Prompt in Windows. It also saves time and effort for system administrators by automating daily repetitive tasks that need to be performed on various workstations and servers. PowerShell also provides complete access to the WIN32API (Windows Application Programing interface). The WIN32API is an application programming interface that allows you to access important Windows functions.

The Importance of Security Training and Awareness

Security awareness is a necessity for security training. Improvements in user activity are required for the optimal adoption of a security system. Such adjustments largely consist of modifications to typical job tasks in order to be consistent with the security policy’s standards, rules, and procedures. User-behavior improvement needs some kind of user education. To create and manage security education, and consciousness, all important components must be widely understood. Furthermore, plans of presentation, integration, and execution must also be designed.

Keep Your Online Applications Safe With a Web Application Firewall (WAF)

Web application firewalls are some of the most recent developments in the field of firewall technology (WAFs). In this blog post, we will define what a web application firewall is, how it functions. We will also cover some of the benefits of using a web application firewall.

Hybrid Cloud

Any cloud infrastructure architecture that comprises both public and private cloud solutions is referred to as a hybrid cloud. The resources are usually managed as part of a larger infrastructure environment. Based on corporate business and technical policies, apps and data workloads can share resources between public and private cloud deployments, to ensure security, high performance, scalability, low cost and efficiency. Organizations can employ private cloud environments for their IT workloads and supplement the infrastructure with public cloud resources to manage periodic surges in network traffic, which is a popular example of hybrid cloud. Alternatively, you might save money by using the public cloud for non-critical tasks and data while using the private cloud for sensitive data. As a result, access to additional processing capacity is provided as a short-term IT service via a public cloud solution, rather than requiring the high CapEx of a private cloud system. The ecosystem is connected smoothly to enable optimal performance and scalability in response to changing business needs.

What is a Private Cloud?

Any cloud system dedicated to a single enterprise is referred to as a private cloud. You are not sharing cloud computing resources with any other enterprise in the private cloud. The data center resources may be on-site or off-site, and managed by a third-party vendor. The computing resources are not shared with other clients and are delivered via a secure private network. The private cloud can be customized to match the organization’s specific business and security requirements. Organizations may run compliance-sensitive IT workloads without sacrificing the security and speed traditionally only accomplished with specialized on-premise data centers, thanks to increased visibility and control over the infrastructure.

What is a Public Cloud?

Cloud computing is a broad word that encompasses a variety of categories, types, and architecture models. This networked computer approach has changed the way we operate, and you’re probably already using it. However, cloud computing isn’t just one thing…

Efficiency Meets Flexibility With Cloud Computing

Cloud computing has come to be a big topic in the business and tech world in the past few years. Cloud computing is the delivery of computing services such as servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, and intelligence via the Internet (“the cloud”) in order to provide faster innovation, more flexible resources, and economies of scale.

Choose the Right Security Control Type for the Job

Every day, an organization’s assets are exposed to a variety of security threats. These threats can damage the assets by exploiting vulnerabilities present in them. The probability of these threats exploiting the assets’ weaknesses and the resulting impact is referred to as risk. Security controls are employed to mitigate this risk. There are various types of security controls, each of which serves a distinct purpose. The article aims to explain what security controls are, their various types, and what functions they provide. It also discusses how these controls can be combined to provide the organization with defense-in-depth protection for its assets.

Advanced Persistent Threat Lifecycle

An advanced persistent threat (APT) is a type of attack campaign in which an unauthorized user gains access to a network and remains there undetected for a prolonged period of time. These attacks are often orchestrated by highly skilled and well-funded adversaries and are designed to achieve specific objectives, such as espionage or data theft. While APT attacks can be difficult to detect and defend against, there are a number of steps organizations can take to reduce their risk of becoming a victim.

How to Stop SMTP Open Relays

SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. This protocol allows email messages to be sent from one computer to another. The Internet was originally designed to allow computers to communicate directly with each other, without human intervention. In order to send emails, you need to know the address of the recipient (the person or company who receives the message).

SIEM: Security Made Easy

Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) is a software system that combines Security Information Management (SIM); an automated process of collecting data of log files into a central archive, and Security Event Management; a type of computer security that monitors, correlates and notifies users of events as they occur in a system; to collect, analyze and report on all security-related events happening in an organization. The goal is to provide real-time monitoring of security devices such as firewalls, antivirus software, intrusion detection systems, and other network-based systems for potential threats. This post will explore the benefits of implementing a SIEM in your business by highlighting some of its most important features.

Keep an Eye Out for Keyloggers - They May Be Hiding on Your Device!

A keylogger is a software program that records typewritten keys and keystrokes. They are used to track what a person types on their keyboard, including passwords, credit card numbers, and other sensitive information. Some keyloggers are installed without the person’s knowledge, while others are installed with the person’s consent. Once installed, the keylogger records all keystrokes and sends them to the person who installed them. Keyloggers can be used for legitimate purposes, such as monitoring employees or children, or for malicious purposes, such as stealing passwords and credit card numbers.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Proxy Servers

People frequently pause to consider how the internet works. Along with the benefits of using the internet, there are drawbacks and risks. But what happens when you browse the internet? You could be using a proxy server at work, on a Virtual Private Network (VPN), or you could be one of the more tech-savvy people who always uses some kind of proxy server.

Perimeter Security: Defend Your Network Against Malicious Attacks

Perimeter Security technologies offer a wide range of security services, from basic firewall protection to end-to-end network and business security. In essence, perimeter security is a defense system built around your network to prevent malicious attacks from entering.

Keep Your Internal Network Secure From Attack With a DMZ Network

A DMZ network connects a company’s secure perimeter to unsecured external networks like the internet. Web servers and other externally facing systems can be located in the DMZ without jeopardizing the security of internal resources. This blog post will explain what DMZs are and why they are important components of traditional network security architectures. Even if best practices are followed, DMZs are not perfect security solutions. We will demonstrate how modern security solutions based on Zero Trust are better suited to the way businesses operate today.

Spyware: Collecting Data From Your System Without Your Knowledge or Consent

How often do you get annoyed by spyware or adware? If you don’t want to be tracked or see ads popping up every time you visit a site, then you should definitely check out these ways to remove them. We will deep dive into spyware and adware in three sections. In this first part of the blog, we will focus on what spyware is and what spyware can do.

What is Adware?

Spyware and adware have different motivations than viruses, worms, and backdoors. Although viruses, worms, and backdoors are often harmful and attack the local host, spyware and adware are frequently motivated by financial gain. As we have covered in the previous blog, spyware is known for tracking your surfing patterns and routing your Internet browser to sites that benefit their producers.

Weighing the Risks and Benefits of Virtual Machines

When it comes to virtual machines, one of the biggest security threats is the possibility of data breaches. These can occur when unauthorized users gain access to the system, or when malware is able to infect the system. Additionally, virtual machines can be subject to denial of service attacks, which can prevent authorized users from accessing the system. To help mitigate these risks, it is important to implement security measures such as strong authentication and authorization controls, as well as effective malware detection and prevention.

Get the Most Out of Your Systems With Virtualization

Enterprise data centers are made up of many servers, the majority of which are idle because the workload is directed to only a few servers on the network. This wastes expensive resources such as hardware, power, maintenance, and cooling requirements. Virtualization increases resource utilization by dividing a physical server into multiple virtual servers. These virtual servers appear and behave as if they were individual physical servers, each with its own operating system and applications.

Keep Your Computer Updated for Improved Performance and Security

If you’ve ever used a Windows device, you’ve probably encountered updates frequently — just before shutting down your computer. Your device may occasionally prompt you to install critical updates. There are also six yearly feature updates that are required! What exactly are these Windows Updates? What is the distinction between various types of Windows Updates? Let us now examine them. Before we get there, let’s distinguish between Windows Updates and Microsoft Updates.

Choose the Right Application Control for your Organization with Whitelisting and Blacklisting

Application whitelisting and application blacklisting are the two main approaches to application control. With no clear guidelines on which is superior, IT administrators are frequently torn when forced to choose between the two. We’ll go over the advantages and disadvantages of both so you can decide which is best for your organization. Some businesses may station a security guard at their entrance to ensure that only employees with a valid ID are allowed in. This is the fundamental idea behind whitelisting; all entities requesting access will be validated against an already approved list and will be permitted only if they appear on that list. Employees fired for misconduct, on the other hand, are frequently placed on a banned list and denied entry. Blacklisting works in the same way: all entities that may be dangerous are typically placed on a collective list and blocked. Non-employees who attempt to gain entry, such as interview candidates, will be placed on the greylist because they are not on the whitelist or the blacklist. Based on the authenticity of their entry request, the security guard either grants or denies it. In a network, the administrator usually acts as a security guard and has complete control over everything that enters it.

Defining Security Roles and Responsibilities

Why do we need security roles and responsibilities? In this blog post, we will answer what security roles and responsibilities are and how important they are to the organization.

Generate a Scalable View of Your Software Development Process

SDLC, or Software Development Life Cycle, is a set of procedures for developing software applications. These steps break the development process down into tasks that can be assigned, completed, and measured.

The Best Way to Decide if Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) is Right for Your Workplace

“Bring Your Own Device,” or “BYOD,” has become a popular business topic as more and more employees use their personal smartphones and tablets for work. While BYOD has many advantages for businesses, such as increased productivity and flexibility, it also has some drawbacks.

Content Filtering: Monitor User Activity to Identify Potential Risks

The process of managing or screening access to specific emails or webpages is known as content filtering. The goal is to prevent access to content that contains potentially harmful information. Organizations commonly use content filtering programs to control content access through their firewalls. Home computer users can also use them. To prevent access to information, content filtering can be implemented as hardware or software and is frequently built into internet firewalls. Content filtering tools are used by businesses to improve security and enforce corporate policies related to information system management, such as when filtering social networking sites. Content filtering prevents internet users from accessing content that may be harmful. It restricts access to content that is considered illegal, inappropriate, or objectionable. Individual internet users, for example, can use it to protect children from graphic or inappropriate content. It also allows an organization to restrict access to pornographic content, which, if ignored, could lead to sexual harassment claims or a demeaning work environment.

The Right Type of Alert for the Right Result

A cybersecurity strategy is intended to safeguard an organization’s data and systems. This includes alerts whenever suspicious activity is detected, as well as an automated response to block the attack. Unfortunately, no security system is perfect, and there will be false alarms. Technology has altered the way we live and work, as well as the way criminals operate. Criminals used to have to physically break into a building or bank to commit a crime. Criminals can now commit crimes from anywhere in the world by going online. This has made it difficult for organizations to keep up with the evolving criminal landscape. One way organizations have adapted to this change is by utilizing computer security systems designed to detect and defend against cyberattacks. These systems operate by monitoring network activity for signs of an attack. This includes both alerts and an automated response whenever suspicious activity is detected.

IPSec is an Efficient Security Enhancement to TCP/IP

TCP/IP has innate flaws. It was meant to run on a government network with a small number of hosts that trusted each other. Security was not a priority for the creators. However, now the network has been expanded worldwide, our most critical concern is security. Therefore, some extra measures were required to protect conversations via the Internet. In this blog, we will explain what Internet Protocol Security is and how it can offer protection over networks.

Transport Layer Security (TLS): Encrypt Your Information for Safe Communication

Several approaches for creating a safe and authenticated channel between hosts have been presented. Finally, a better replacement to the SSL protocol was created which is TLS. In this blog we will make an introduction to Transport Layer Protection (TLS) protocol.

Comparing Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Secure-HTTP (HTTP-S) Protocols

In this blog post, we are going to explain what Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), and Secure-HTTP (HTTP-S) protocols are and how they differ from each other.

Follow the Separation of Duties Principle for a Safer Organization

One of the oldest security principles still in use today is privilege separation. Simply put, it argues that no single person should have sufficient authority to cause a catastrophic event to occur. Separation of responsibilities guarantees that tasks are distributed to workers in such a way that no single employee has complete control of a process from start to finish. Separation of tasks entails each individual having a separate job, allowing everyone to specialize in a certain area.

Don't Let Rootkits Take Control

A rootkit is a malicious software program that is designed to gain access to a computer system without being detected. Once a rootkit is installed on a system, it can be used to remotely control the system, steal sensitive data, or perform other malicious activities. Rootkits are difficult to detect and remove and can be used to establish a persistent presence on a system.

Remote Access Authentication: PAP and CHAP

This blog article will discuss two username/password authentication protocols: Password Authentication Protocol and The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. By the completion of this page, you’ll know if you should use one of two methods for authentication of point-to-point packets.

How Do You Prevent Brute Force Attacks?

If you want to recover a password, the simplest method is to use a brute force attack. Is brute force really effective? Well, many users appear to utilize birthdates or other historical dates as passwords, or other readily guessed numbers or phrases. Today we are going to examine what a brute force attack is and how we can protect our systems against it.

Server-Client Communication Security: Digital Certificates

In this blog, we will take a quick look at PKI, and examine how digital certificates assist in the security of interactions between a server and an end-user, the components of a digital certificate, and the function of certificate authorities.

Site-to-Site VPN for Secure Connections Between Business Offices and Partners

As we have learned, a Virtual Private Network allows two networks to communicate securely across a public network. A VPN also enables a server-to-server connection, as opposed to a client-to-server connection, allowing two networks to establish an extended intranet or extranet. In this blog post, we will cover how we can connect distant branches of our company or partners securely with a site-to-site VPN.

You're Never Too Far From the Office With a VPN

It is usually suggested to have your own private dedicated line between multiple places for safe connections. However, this approach is quite expensive since various sites must be connected by different cables, and building cables across geographies is an expensive operation. Also, maintenance is another problem. To address these issues, a virtual private network (VPN) was created. In this blog, we will define what a virtual private network is and how the tunneling process works.

Data Security Management: Keep your Data Safe and Sound

Data security management is a process that provides an organization with an effective means to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of its data. It aims to ensure that information systems are designed, operated, and monitored in a way that protects the privacy rights and safety of individuals who use or access them. For Data Security Management to be successful, it must be integrated into all aspects of organizational governance. Importance of Data Security It assures the implementation of technologies that increase the companies’ visibility into where and how their critical data is stored and used.

Protect your Web Applications Against CSRF Attacks

Cross-site request forgery (CSRF) is a type of attack that allows an attacker to do unauthorized actions on behalf of a user. A CSRF attack happens when a malicious site sends a request to a victim site, causing the victim site to perform an action intended by the attacker. This can be used to steal information, such as login passwords, or to take acts on the user’s behalf, such as moving funds from their account.

The Biba Model: A comparison between Bell-laPadula

For many civilian companies, integrity must be favored over confidentiality. As a result of this necessity, numerous integrity-focused security approaches were created, such as Biba and Clark-Wilson. In the following blog post, we are going to look at the Biba Model and discuss its unique characteristics for securing the integrity of data and make a comparison with the Bel-LaPadula (BLP) model.

The Attacker Mindset: The DAD Triad

We typically define security as the total of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. These three components (which are known as the CIA triad) are the foundations of any well-designed information security practice. We adopt security policies in enterprises or individually model the CIA triad from a protection perspective. However, attackers have their own model too. This model consists of three pillars: disclosure, alteration, and denial (which is also abbreviated as the “DAD” triad). In this blog post, we are going to examine each of the DAD triad components and how they connect to their CIA triad equivalents.

Identification and Authentication Methods: Kerberos

How do so many people find a way to access resources securely? Well, in this blog post we are going to explore a network authentication protocol that is named Kerberos.

Find the Right Vulnerability Scanner for your Organization's Needs

A vulnerability assessment is the process of detecting, assessing, and prioritizing vulnerabilities in computer systems, networks, and applications. A vulnerability assessment’s purpose is to offer data that may be utilized to make judgments about where to allocate resources to address vulnerabilities. A vulnerability assessment can be conducted using a variety of approaches, with the most appropriate method depending on the specific system under assessment and the assessment’s objectives. In this article let us look at different types of vulnerability assessment tools.

Secure your Web Application Against Cross-Site Scripting (XSS)

XSS attacks are a type of injection in which malicious scripts are injected into trusted websites. XSS attacks occur when an attacker uses a web application to send malicious code to a different end user, typically in the form of a browser side script. The flaws that allow these attacks to succeed are quite common, and they occur whenever a web application uses user input within the output it generates without validating or encoding it.

Prevent Buffer Overflows Before they Happen

A buffer overflow is a type of computer security vulnerability that occurs when data is stored in a memory buffer that exceeds the capacity of the buffer. This can result in data corruption or the execution of malicious code. Programming errors are frequently the source of buffer overflow vulnerabilities. A programmer, for example, may fail to check the size of a user’s input before storing it in a buffer. If the input exceeds the buffer size, the excess data will overflow into adjacent memory locations. Buffer overflow attacks take advantage of these flaws by supplying input that is larger than the intended buffer. In the case of malicious input, this can cause the program to crash or allow the attacker to execute code on the target system.

Access Controls: For a Secure Organization

Every organization has resources that are used by various entities on a daily basis. The retrieval of information from these resources is referred to as access. These resources, however, should be accessed in a way that does not jeopardize their security. Access controls enable organizations to ensure secure access to resources.

What are software backdoors?

Some of the most dominant risks to systems are in the form of malicious software, which is also known as malware. Attackers meticulously construct, write, and build malware programs to breach security and/or cause damage. These programs are designed to be self-contained and do not necessarily require user involvement or the presence of the attacker to execute their damage. In this blog post, we are going to give an introduction to what is software backdoor, possible ways of getting them into our environment, its nature and scope, and some recommendations on how to prevent from them.

Keep your Operating System Secure by Protecting your File System

The file system is one of the most essential parts of your operating system that you must safeguard. To secure our file systems, first, we need to understand their structure and nature. In this blog post, we are going to do a very quick primer on the introduction to file systems.

Network protocols: The Foundation of Digital Communication - ARP, DNS, DHCP, HTTP and FTP

Our previous blog post about network protocols covered the foundational protocols TCP/IP and UDP. In the additional parts of the Network protocols series, we will cover other protocols that almost all rely on TCP/IP or UDP to function. This article will continue with ARP, DNS, DHCP, HTTP and FTP.

Block Malicious Packets with Packet Filtering Firewalls

Network security tools ensure that you are well equipped to deal with any malicious attempts. In this blog, we are going to explore the network layer firewall mechanism and its pros and cons.

Firewalls: Creating Trust Barriers to Stop External Threats

A firewall is an essential component of any organization’s security infrastructure. It can be implemented as hardware, software, or a hybrid of the two. A firewall can help to protect a network from attack by restricting unauthorized incoming traffic. A firewall is often used to create a barrier between a trusted internal network and an untrustworthy external network, such as the Internet.

Securing Confidentiality of Data using the Bell-LaPadula Model

In an organization, you can secure information in many ways. In this article, we are going to give a general overview of the importance of security models and discuss the rules for securing data using the Bell La Padula Model and its benefits and disadvantages.

Your Business Information System - Complete and Secure

An information system (IS) is the full combination of software, hardware, data, people, procedures, and networks that enables the company to utilize information resources. Information can be input, processed, output, and stored using these six important components. Each of these IS components has its strengths and weaknesses, security needs, as well as unique features and applications.

Common Network Devices you Need to Know

A network is a collection of computers that are linked together by a wired or wireless connection in order for them to communicate electronically or access shared network resources. A variety of hardware devices are used to build and extend a computer network. This article will go over the various network devices and their functions.

Data Loss Prevention: Keep your Data Safe - Part 2

Data Loss Prevention (DLP) is a security mechanism that detects sensitive data and alerts administrators when it leaves the network or is accessed without authorization. Endpoint security, email, cloud-based solutions, and mobile device management software are all examples of DLP products. DLP deployments may be viewed as a barrier or a delay in some workers’ and departments’ day-to-day job tasks and obligations. However, when properly configured, a DLP system may be a valuable asset to a corporation, supporting a variety of security goals and compliance. The danger of data loss (both customer and company) rises when organizations change their working environments and support their IT infrastructure with the introduction of new and innovative technology.

Protect your Organization by Learning Common Cyber Attack Classifications

The goal of cyber-attacks is to disable computers, disrupt computer systems, steal data, obtain illegal access to computer systems, or delete data. It steals data by exploiting flaws or misconfigurations in computer code, which leads to cybercrime. Attacks can be launched remotely from anywhere in the world. A cyber attack is designed in such way that it causes significant damage to an organization.

How do intrusion detection systems work?

The intrusion detection system (IDS) is a security system that monitors, detects, and protects a network from malicious activity. IDS works by alerting when an intrusion is detected. IDS are widely used to strengthen an organization’s security because they monitor all incoming and outgoing traffic for any malicious activity. There are two kinds of IDS: active and passive.

Data Loss Prevention: Keep your Data Safe - Part 1

Data Loss Prevention (DLP) strives to prevent unauthorized disclosure of an organization’s data assets. Unsecure access control to sensitive resources, such as files containing confidential data, makes data leakage very easy; hence, DLPs play a key role in protecting an organization’s data from unauthorized access. Different DLP solutions may differ in how they identify threats, and what action should be taken if an adversary breaches security controls.

The OSI Model: A Framework for Data Transmission

The electronic transfer of information (audio, video, or data) over vast distances between electronic equipment is known as telecommunication. Data can be transmitted using either wired (coaxial, ethernet, or fiber optic connections) or wireless techniques. Telecommunication and networking employ a variety of processes, devices, software, and protocols. Over time, different models have evolved to better describe data flow between devices utilizing various protocols. A protocol is a set of instructions or rules that govern data transmission between electronic devices. Most operating systems and protocols adhere to the OSI model as an abstract framework. The purpose of this article is to explore this model and how it may be used to visualize the process of data transmission over a network.

Get a Grip on your Data with Data Governance!

Data Governance involves defining policies that govern how data generated within organizations is managed, accessed, shared, and owned. Governance refers to rules, regulations, and procedures developed to achieve organizational objectives. This type of policy sets out conditions under which organizational processes, functions, and services operate.

Keep your Systems Safe with Regular Vulnerability Scanning

After identifying a target system and conducting early intelligence gathering, the hacker can focus on gaining access to the target system. We can think of scanning as an extension of reconnaissance, in which the attacker gains a wide array of data like: which operating system is in use, active services, any configuration vulnerabilities. After the collection of this useful information, the hacker can plan an attack strategy based on these findings.

Ensure your Software's Safety with Security Testing

Security testing is the process of assessing and testing software’s security by discovering and mitigating various vulnerabilities and security concerns. Security testing’s main purpose is to ensure that software or applications are resistant to cyber-attacks and may be used safely.

Network protocols: The Foundation of Digital Communication - TCP & UDP

Network protocols determine how data is transmitted between devices in a network. These protocols allow devices to communicate with each other without any regard for the device’s design or internal workings. Networking protocols play a critical role in today’s digital communications.

Ransomware: Security Against Extortion

Ransomware is a type of malicious software that is either cryptographic or locker-based. Cryptographic ransomware encrypts the victim’s system, devices, folders, and or files, making them unable to read and use without a key. Locker ransomware locks the screen and ignores user input. After a successful attack, the adversaries usually demand a ransom from the victim for decryption or unlocking. Ransomware is often delivered by email as an attachment, but it may also spread via social media messages, pop-ups, or infected websites. The ransomware process usually starts with executing a malicious file on the victim’s computer. This file will download other files that connect to a malicious server. After encrypting files or locking systems, notes are released to inform users about the ransomware and the payment procedures to receive the key. An example of a large-scale ransomware attack is WannaCry in 2017, which infected approximately 230,000 computers in over 150 countries.

Be Botnet and Zombie Aware for a Safer Internet!

Zombies and botnets are two of the most popular forms of malware used to attack computer systems maliciously. Botnets are virtual networks of zombies created by attackers who use bot programs to remotely control susceptible computers. Botnets can be used to conduct coordinated attacks against other computing resources, such as targeted distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. The emergence of bot malware has been distinguished by a shift in motive from curiosity and fame-seeking to illegal financial gain.

Be Aware of Person-in-the-Middle Attacks and take Steps to Prevent them

A person-in-the-middle attack is a type of cyber-attack in which the attacker intercepts communication between two parties (the user and the application) in order to obtain information or data. This type of attack can be difficult to detect and the primary objective is to steal sensitive information like login credentials, personal information, and financial details. Let’s take a look at what a person-in-the-middle attack is.

A Simple Introduction to Red, Blue and Purple Teaming

There are three types of methods that an organization uses to secure its infrastructure: Red Teaming, Blue Teaming, and Purple teaming. Each concept takes a different strategy for safeguarding the organization. Let’s take a look at what red, blue, and purple teaming is all about.

Don't let a DoS Attack take you Down

A denial of service attack is an attempt to prevent intended users from accessing a system or network resource. Denial of service attacks are frequently used to target a specific person or group, but they can be used against anybody who uses the Internet. A denial of service attack can be carried out in a number of methods, but the most frequent is to flood a targeted system with requests.

Watch out for these Visual Signs of Malware Infection!

There are a few things to check for if you suspect your computer has been infected with malware. To begin, look for any strange or unexpected conduct. If your computer becomes noticeably slower or apps crash for no apparent reason, this might be an indication of infection. Another red flag is the appearance of additional toolbars or icons that you did not install, or if your home page has been modified without your consent. The best thing to do if you suspect malware is to perform a scan using a trusted anti-virus application. This will help in the detection and removal of any dangerous software that may be present on your PC.

Stop Cyberattacks Before they Start with an Intrusion Detection System

Malicious or anomalous activities can occur on a system at any time, making the presence of intrusion detection systems critical. The job of an intrusion detection system is to detect suspicious activities, while monitoring a system or network and analyzes data to identify potential incidents. Intrusion detection systems can be host based or network based.

Learn about the Different ways Malware can Infect your System

There are many ways that malware can be delivered to a system. Some common methods are through email attachments, downloading infected files from the internet, and running infected programs. Malware can also be delivered through exploit kits that take advantage of vulnerabilities in programs and operating systems. Once malware is on a system, it can spread to other systems and devices on the network.

Be Malware Aware: What are the Different Types of Malware?

Malware is a broad term that refers to any software with a malicious intent. Malware comes in a variety of forms, each with its own method of infecting your computer. These methods may include attempting to obtain unauthorized control of your computer systems, stealing personal information, encrypting critical information, or causing other harm to your computer. Damage can sometimes be irreversible. Email attachments, infected websites, torrents, and shared networks are all popular malware sources.

Cyber Kill Chain: Protect your System by Understanding the Attackers' Methods

The concept of “kill chain” is used in the cybersecurity industry to describe how attackers get into a system and accomplish their goals. Cyber security professionals can implement countermeasures and defend their systems, by understanding how attackers can hack a system successfully.

Safeguard your Data by Implementing Different Cyber Security Controls

Understanding what cyber risks exist is the first step in preventing them. Cyber threats can take various forms and include any type of threat that uses technology to harm people or organizations. In this article, we introduce three types of security controls that can protect individuals and organizations from cyber attacks.

Threat Actors in Cyberspace

In information security, there are several types of threat actors. Some are motivated by money, others by political or ideological motivations, whereas others by a desire to harm others. The most prevalent sort of threat actor is the profit-driven criminal. There are, however, numerous state-sponsored actors who are frequently driven by political or ideological motivations. These state-sponsored actors may be very dangerous since they have resources that most criminals do not.

Understand the Different Types of Hackers

A hacker is a person who uses technical expertise to gain unauthorized access to computer systems or data. Hackers may do this for a variety of purposes, including stealing sensitive information, causing damage or disruption, or simply playing around with the system. Some hackers work alone, while others may be part of a wider organization. Hacking can be accomplished by a variety of methods, including as programming code that exploits a system vulnerability, guessing passwords, or physically accessing the system’s hardware. There are five main types of hackers, which will be described in this article.

Understand the Different Types of Cyber Security Threats

Any form of a malicious attack on an electronic device or system is referred to as a “cyber security threat.” There are several forms of cyber security threats, but the most prevalent include malware, system failures, unauthorized access, and social engineering. Cyber security risks may be harmful to both individuals and organizations; thus, it is critical to understand the various forms of dangers that exist. Understanding the various forms of cyber security dangers available allows you to better plan to defend yourself and your assets from them.

The three A's of security: Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting.

An organization must employ the three “A’s” of security to keep our computer systems and data safe: authentication, authorization, and accounting. Authentication is the process of verifying that someone is who they say they are. The process of ensuring that someone has the necessary authority to access a certain resource is known as authorization. Accounting is the process of documenting and tracking all system activity. If we apply all three of these security standards, we can assure that our systems are safe from unwanted access and misuse.

A Short Introduction to the Major Cyber Disciplines

In today’s interconnected world, a strong understanding of cyber security is essential for individuals and businesses alike. There are many cyber disciplines, but some of the most important include vulnerability management, incident response, forensics, security architecture, security engineering, and governance, risk and compliance (GRC). By understanding these key concepts, you can better protect yourself and your organization from online threats.

Cybersecurity for pre-beginners

Cyber security has become a significant priority for both organizations and people in recent years. The potential for cyberattacks has grown exponentially as people’s reliance on technology and the internet has grown. The technique of securing computer systems and networks from illegal access or theft is known as cyber security. This can be achieved through a variety of tools, including firewalls, encryption, and intrusion detection.

The CIA Triad: Keep Your Data Safe

The CIA Triad plays an essential role in cyber security. The Triad is an acronym that stands for confidentiality, integrity, and availability. All three principles are essential to the security of information and systems. Confidentiality ensures that information is not disclosed to unauthorized individuals or entities. Integrity ensures that information is not altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner. Availability ensures that authorized users have access to information and systems when they need them. The Triad is significant because it helps organizations secure their data from unauthorized access and modification.

What are Zero-Day Vulnerabilities and Who Uses Them?

A zero-day vulnerability is a computer security flaw that is unknown to the general public and vendors until it is actively exploited and caught in the wild. Zero-days or 0-days are highly sought after by threat actors because they are highly effective at obtaining initial access on a target system.