Fundamental Cybersecurity Concepts (118)

Introduction to Patching

Security patches and software upgrades are the first locations cybercriminals seek for weaknesses in previous versions that they may target. When an attacker notices that an issue has been resolved, anyone who has not applied the solution becomes a target. Having all of your applications up-to-date can minimize the vast majority of known online threats. In this blog post, we age going to learn what is patching, and what is a patch management lifecycle.

Understanding Bug Bounty Hunting

As we already know, a weakness is a flaw in a program that lets a hostile individual conduct an unauthorized activity or obtain access to data. Wouldn’t it be nice if a software application company remediate a vulnerability in a technology or service it provides before a malicious actor does? Well, you can achieve this in many ways such as hiring internal security professionals, paying for a penetration testing as a service platform and so on. In today’s blog post, we are going to add another group of skilled individuals who are called bug bounty hunters and define who they are, what is bug bounty hunting, what is a bounty-hunting program and what are some differences between a vulnerability rewards program (VRP) and A vulnerability disclosure program (VDP) are.

The Basics of Securing Workstations: Virtual

A system strengthening strategy is a dynamic endeavor and needs continual assessment of the network and local assets. It is vital that we examine what we can do at the endpoints rather than depending just on the identification of an exploit.

Network protocols explained: IMAP, POP3, SMTP, RDP and VNC

In our previous blog post on network protocols we covered the definition of a protocol, why they are important and began explaining some common protocols; TCP/IP and UDP. These are important network protocols as most other protocols rely on TCP/IP or UDP to perform their role. Our second blog post on the subject of network protocols covered some additional network protocols and their reliance on either TCP/IP or UDP (or both). In this blog post, we continue to discuss network protocols that rely on either TCP/IP, UDP, or both.

Vulnerability Scanners: Result Accuracies

This blog page will provide you with what is validation process, what are possible vulnerability scanner results, and why vulnerability findings may be misleading.

The Basics of Securing Workstations: Physical

In this blog page, we are going to take a look at what is an endpoint device, what are three levels of security, the areas cybercriminals are most likely to target, and lastly how to harden our workstations.

Basic Physical Security

It’s easy to forget that physical security is still a crucial aspect of keeping our information safe as our lives become increasingly online. Physical security is more crucial than ever in a cyber ecosystem.

Basic Wireless Technologies and an Example of their Exploits

Wireless technologies allow two or more devices to interact without the use of physical touch or a connected connection. Mobile phones, computer networking, wireless sensor networks, and other applications use wireless technology. There are a variety of wireless technologies available, each with its own set of benefits and drawbacks.

Secure Browsing 101

In this blog article, we will discuss the basics of how to safely use web browsers.

An Overview of File Inclusion Vulnerabilities

Web applications are used for a wide range of purposes by individuals and different organizations. These web applications provide multiple benefits to their users as well as various functionalities. They are, nonetheless, vulnerable to malicious adversaries’ attacks. The exploitation of some of these security weaknesses can impede the organization’s key business processes, resulting in significant financial losses. As a result, it is very important to identify and fix such vulnerabilities discovered in the web application. File inclusion vulnerabilities are one of the most common types of vulnerabilities. This article discusses the many forms of file inclusion vulnerabilities, as well as their consequences and how to protect against them.

Securing Servers: An Introductory Guide

Servers need particular security implementations, because obtaining the information stored on the servers is the most profitable objective for an attacker. This blog post will help you secure your servers with simple and clear guidelines.

What is Network Sniffing?

The act of monitoring and capturing data packets as they travel across a network is referred to as network sniffing. This can be done for various reasons, including network troubleshooting, monitoring user behavior, and stealing sensitive data. Network sniffing can be used to identify the source of error when troubleshooting a network.

Introduction to Vulnerability Management

In this article we will describe what vulnerabilities are, and best practices for managing them.

Access Control Trends in Organizations

The advent of Internet of Things (IoT) in nowadays life and the disruption from Covid-19 force adaptations of access control in organizations. Indeed, objects made of advanced technologies are exploited to prevent unauthorized physical accesses. There comes the necessity to draw trends of usage of access control mechanisms as well as adopted strategies in companies. In this tutorial, existing case studies are mentioned. Five biggest access control trends are compiled for the future years based on industry expertise, research, and projections. Figure 1 shows each of them.

Access Control Technologies and Systems

In the deployment environments, cyber-professionals require to operationalize access controls fitting to their contexts. In the sections that follow, we will look at related technologies and systems in greater depth.

Access Control Models

Due to the fact that a system or particularly a network system can contain thousands of users and resources, managing access control (AC) privileges for each user per object can be difficult.

API Security

A set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for developing application software is known as an application programming interface (API). It represents a set of communication protocols between different software components. A good API makes it easy to create a software by supplying all of the necessary building components, which the programmer then assembles. A web-based system, operating system, database system, computer hardware, or software library may all have APIs. The API allows a programmer creating an application program to send a request to the operating system. The operating system then forwards the request to the appropriate software component, which completes the task and returns a response to the programmer.

Federated Identity Management and Single-Sign-On (SSO)

Employees in an organization are provided access to various resources and applications in order to perform their day-to-day responsibilities. Instead of requiring the user to create a different set of credentials to access each application or different resources, the organization employs SSO (Single-Sign-On) and federated identity management technologies which results in smoother access to these resources/applications. These technologies when implemented correctly, increase functionality and protect organization’s valuable assets. This article covers the federated identity management concepts, different frameworks used for its implementation, and the security challenges related to it.

A Quick Rundown of Cryptography and Steganography

There are different kind of forms of covert communication that involve the use of any medium to hide something. Cryptography and steganography are often used together to conceal crucial data. Both have nearly the same aim at their heart, which is to safeguard a message or information from third parties. They do, however, safeguard the information via a completely different approach.

What Is Phishing?

Phishing, like fishing, is a technique used to “fish” for usernames, passwords, and other sensitive information from a “sea” of users. Because hackers frequently use the letter “ph” instead of the letter “f,” they were initially dubbed “phreaks.” Phishing (pronounced “fishing”) is one of the social engineering attacks that attempt to steal your money or identity by tricking you into disclosing personal information – such as credit card numbers, bank account information, or passwords – on websites that appear to be legitimate.

Password Cracking Techniques, Tools and Protection Recommendations

A password is a protected string of characters that is used to authenticate a user. Passwords are the most widely used authentication method, yet they are also the weakest. Users sometimes choose passwords that are exceedingly easy to guess or are based on personal information about the user (e.g. their birth month or the name of their pet). They may even scribble it down on a piece of paper, hide it in a location where it may be easily taken, or share it with others. Organizations that utilize passwords as the primary or one of the sources of authentication should implement proper security controls to prevent them from being compromised as it can have severe implications. This article will go over the basics of password cracking, as well as the techniques and tools used to crack passwords and password protection mechanisms.

An Explanation of Knowledge and Behavior-Based Detection Within an IDS

An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) is a type of security device that analyzes data packets and compares them against known signatures. The goal of an IDS is to detect intrusions before they cause damage. In this blog post we will explain how an IDS can identify harmful events using Knowledge-based detections and Behavior-based detections, along with the different aspects, benefits, and drawbacks.

Root Login vs. Sudo

This blog will explain why you should quit logging in as root at all times and provide the best security alternative to doing so.

Social Engineering: Basic Principals, Attacks, Phases and Prevention

People, processes, and technology are the three essential components of a security program. In order to provide effective security protection to an organization’s assets, all three components must function together. Humans, according to several security experts, are the weakest link in the security chain. Human errors can sometimes have a devastating impact on an organization’s security even if you have the best technologies in place defending your assets. These errors might occur as a result of carelessness, a lack of security awareness education, or excessive permissions. According to research conducted by Stanford University, nearly 88 percent of all data breaches are the result of human error. When it comes to defending your company against various attack vectors, it is critical to keep the human factor in mind. This article goes over the basics of social engineering attacks and how to prevent them.

An Introduction to Active Directory and how PowerShell can be used as a Security Auditor

The network operating system (NOS) is a software-based networked environment that allows many workstations and computing devices to share resources. In 1990, Microsoft released Windows NT 3.0 that featured a NOS environment. Many aspects of the LAN Manager protocols and the OS/2 operating system were merged in this product. Over the next few years, the Windows NT NOS slowly evolved into Active Directory that was first formally deployed in Windows Server 2000.

Introduction to Debuggers and Disassemblers

Reverse Engineering (RE) has been the leading technique for understanding the structure and operation of malicious programs and what they’re programmed to do for a very long time.


Sandboxing is a technique in which you build an isolated test environment, or “sandbox,” in which you execute or “detonate” a suspicious file or URL attached to an email. The sandbox should be a safe, virtual environment that closely mimics the CPU of your production servers.

Security as a Service (SECaaS)

PSECaaS (Security as a Service) is best defined as a cloud-based approach for outsourcing cybersecurity services. SECaaS, like Software as a Solution, is a subscription-based security service hosted by cloud providers. For corporate infrastructures, Security as a Service solutions have grown in popularity as a method to relieve in-house security team duties, scale security demands as the organization expands, and avoid the costs and upkeep of on-premise alternatives.

Platform as a Service (Paas)

Platform as a service (PaaS) is a cloud computing model in which users receive hardware and software resources from third-party vendors over the internet. These tools are often required for application development. As a result, PaaS eliminates the need for developers to set up in-house gear and software in order to create or execute a new application.

Software as a Service (SaaS)

Software as a service (SaaS) is undeniably changing the way we think about and use software. We no longer have to install and maintain software on our own computers or devices; instead, we may get it over the internet, generally for a fee. This move has huge repercussions for organizations as well as individual individuals.

Linux Exploitation: Basic Linux Shellcoding

Shellcoding is a form of system exploitation in which an attacker inserts malicious code into a program or file in order to execute arbitrary commands. Shellcode is often used to create a backdoor in a system, allowing the attacker to gain access and control. In many cases, the attacker will encode the shellcode to avoid detection.

The NIST Cybersecurity Framework and the Benefits of Implementing it

NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technologies), a division of the United States Department of Commerce, is in charge of developing metrics, standards, and technology to promote innovation and competitiveness in the field of science and technology. With the number of cybersecurity attacks on the rise, the NIST Cyber Security Framework was created to assist various organizations in improving their security posture. NIST CSF was created in conjunction with security professionals from the private sector and government agencies, and it is currently being used by a growing number of businesses throughout the world to design their own security frameworks. This article delves into the specifics of this framework as well as the advantages of implementing it.

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

If your company, like many others, is always searching for methods to enhance efficiency and save expenses. Moving to a cloud-based infrastructure is one approach to do this. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) is basically cloud computing and allows enterprises to access, manage, and use infrastructure resources in a scalable, pay-as-you-go approach. IaaS is an excellent choice for companies who want to shift to the cloud but don’t want to give up the control and flexibility that comes with owning their own infrastructure. You may decide how much or how little of your infrastructure to migrating to the cloud using IaaS.

Access Control Monitoring

In every organization, it is essential to observe in real time actIvities related to access control. Access Control Monitoring (ACM) is concerned with checking who tries to access specific network resources. Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) and Intrusion Detection System (IDS) are two types of ACM systems.

Access Control Levels

This tutorial deals with the following questions: Where is access control applied in systems and networks? what components are essential for these applications?

Access Control Threats

In this tutorial, we present the threats oriented towards access control with the aim at sensitizing the cybersecurity professional about attacker processes as well as countermeasures. Attackers usually launches specific attacks with the objectives to break the access control mechanisms put in place by administrators. The figure below shows these threats.

Access Control Fundamentals

Any system and network requires a reliable and safe configuration of resource accesses under existing and authorized identities. They are essential to contain identity usurpations and to limit unauthorized activities. This document introduces fundamentals of access control and connected aspects such as authorization.

PowerShell Basics for Security Professionals

PowerShell is a Microsoft.Net framework-based open source command-line shell and scripting language. PowerShell is a popular tool for automating tasks and configuring systems. IT professionals use PowerShell to carry out their tasks in the same way as Command Prompt in Windows. It also saves time and effort for system administrators by automating daily repetitive tasks that need to be performed on various workstations and servers. PowerShell also provides complete access to the WIN32API (Windows Application Programing interface). The WIN32API is an application programming interface that allows you to access important Windows functions.

The Importance of Security Training and Awareness

Security awareness is a necessity for security training. Improvements in user activity are required for the optimal adoption of a security system. Such adjustments largely consist of modifications to typical job tasks in order to be consistent with the security policy’s standards, rules, and procedures.

Introduction to Web Application Firewall (WAF)

Web application firewalls are some of the most recent developments in the field of firewall technology (WAFs). In this blog post, we will define what a web application firewall is, how it functions. We will also cover some of the benefits of using a web application firewall.

Hybrid Cloud

Any cloud infrastructure architecture that comprises both public and private cloud solutions is referred to as a hybrid cloud.

Private Cloud

Any cloud system dedicated to a single enterprise is referred to as a private cloud. You are not sharing cloud computing resources with any other enterprise in the private cloud.

Public Cloud

Cloud computing is a broad word that encompasses a variety of categories, types, and architecture models. This networked computer approach has changed the way we operate, and you’re probably already using it. However, cloud computing isn’t just one thing; it’s divided into three categories:

Cloud computing

Cloud computing has come to be a big topic in the business and tech world in the past few years. Cloud computing is the delivery of computing services such as servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, and intelligence via the Internet (“the cloud”) in order to provide faster innovation, more flexible resources, and economies of scale.

Introduction to Security Control Types and Functions

Every day, an organization’s assets are exposed to a variety of security threats. These threats can damage the assets by exploiting vulnerabilities present in them. The probability of these threats exploiting the assets’ weaknesses and the resulting impact is referred to as risk. Security controls are employed to mitigate this risk. There are various types of security controls, each of which serves a distinct purpose. The article aims to explain what security controls are, their various types, and what functions they provide. It also discusses how these controls can be combined to provide the organization with defense-in-depth protection for its assets.

Advanced Persistent Threat Lifecycle

An advanced persistent threat (APT) is a type of attack campaign in which an unauthorized user gains access to a network and remains there undetected for a prolonged period of time. These attacks are often orchestrated by highly skilled and well-funded adversaries and are designed to achieve specific objectives, such as espionage or data theft. While APT attacks can be difficult to detect and defend against, there are a number of steps organizations can take to reduce their risk of becoming a victim.

How to Stop SMTP Open Relays

SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. This protocol allows email messages to be sent from one computer to another. The Internet was originally designed to allow computers to communicate directly with each other, without human intervention. In order to send emails, you need to know the address of the recipient (the person or company who receives the message).

Understanding Security Information and Event Management Systems (SIEMs)

Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) is a software system that combines Security Information Management (SIM); an automated process of collecting data of log files into a central archive, and Security Event Management; a type of computer security that monitors, correlates and notifies users of events as they occur in a system; to collect, analyze and report on all security-related events happening in an organization. The goal is to provide real-time monitoring of security devices such as firewalls, antivirus software, intrusion detection systems, and other network-based systems for potential threats. This post will explore the benefits of implementing a SIEM in your business by highlighting some of its most important features.

What is a Keylogger?

A keylogger is a software program that records typewritten keys and keystrokes. They are used to track what a person types on their keyboard, including passwords, credit card numbers, and other sensitive information. Some keyloggers are installed without the person’s knowledge, while others are installed with the person’s consent. Once installed, the keylogger records all keystrokes and sends them to the person who installed them. Keyloggers can be used for legitimate purposes, such as monitoring employees or children, or for malicious purposes, such as stealing passwords and credit card numbers.

Understanding Proxy Servers

People frequently pause to consider how the internet works. Along with the benefits of using the internet, there are drawbacks and risks. But what happens when you browse the internet? You could be using a proxy server at work, on a Virtual Private Network (VPN), or you could be one of the more tech-savvy people who always uses some kind of proxy server.

Perimeter Security

Perimeter Security technologies offer a wide range of security services, from basic firewall protection to end-to-end network and business security. In essence, perimeter security is a defense system built around your network to prevent malicious attacks from entering.

DMZ security risks and opportunities

A DMZ network connects a company’s secure perimeter to unsecured external networks like the internet. Web servers and other externally facing systems can be located in the DMZ without jeopardizing the security of internal resources.

What Is Spyware?

How often do you get annoyed by spyware or adware? If you don’t want to be tracked or see ads popping up every time you visit a site, then you should definitely check out these ways to remove them. We will deep dive into spyware and adware in three sections. In this first part of the blog, we will focus on what spyware is and what spyware can do.

What is Adware?

Spyware and adware have different motivations than viruses, worms, and backdoors. Although viruses, worms, and backdoors are often harmful and attack the local host, spyware and adware are frequently motivated by financial gain. As we have covered in the previous blog, spyware is known for tracking your surfing patterns and routing your Internet browser to sites that benefit their producers.

Security risks and protection of VMs

When it comes to virtual machines, one of the biggest security threats is the possibility of data breaches. These can occur when unauthorized users gain access to the system, or when malware is able to infect the system. Additionally, virtual machines can be subject to denial of service attacks, which can prevent authorized users from accessing the system.

Types of virtualization

Enterprise data centers are made up of many servers, the majority of which are idle because the workload is directed to only a few servers on the network. This wastes expensive resources such as hardware, power, maintenance, and cooling requirements. Virtualization increases resource utilization by dividing a physical server into multiple virtual servers. These virtual servers appear and behave as if they were individual physical servers, each with its own operating system and applications.

Windows update types

If you’ve ever used a Windows device, you’ve probably encountered updates frequently — just before shutting down your computer. Your device may occasionally prompt you to install critical updates. There are also six yearly feature updates that are required! What exactly are these Windows Updates? What is the distinction between various types of Windows Updates? Let us now examine them. Before we get there, let’s distinguish between Windows Updates and Microsoft Updates.

Application restriction

Application whitelisting and application blacklisting are the two main approaches to application control. With no clear guidelines on which is superior, IT administrators are frequently torn when forced to choose between the two. We’ll go over the advantages and disadvantages of both so you can decide which is best for your organization.

What are Security Roles And Responsibilities?

Why do we need security roles and responsibilities? In this blog post, we will answer what security roles and responsibilities are and how important they are to the organization.

SDLC Software Development Life Cycle

SDLC, or Software Development Life Cycle, is a set of procedures for developing software applications. These steps break the development process down into tasks that can be assigned, completed, and measured.

BYOD Bring Your Own Device

“Bring Your Own Device,” or “BYOD,” has become a popular business topic as more and more employees use their personal smartphones and tablets for work. While BYOD has many advantages for businesses, such as increased productivity and flexibility, it also has some drawbacks.

Content Filtering

The process of managing or screening access to specific emails or webpages is known as content filtering. The goal is to prevent access to content that contains potentially harmful information. Organizations commonly use content filtering programs to control content access through their firewalls. Home computer users can also use them.

Types of Alerts

A cybersecurity strategy is intended to safeguard an organization’s data and systems. This includes alerts whenever suspicious activity is detected, as well as an automated response to block the attack.

Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)

TCP/IP has innate flaws. It was meant to run on a government network with a small number of hosts that trusted each other. Security was not a priority for the creators. However, now the network has been expanded worldwide, our most critical concern is security. Therefore, some extra measures were required to protect conversations via the Internet. In this blog, we will explain what Internet Protocol Security is and how it can offer protection over networks.

Transport Layer Security (TLS): An Introduction

Several approaches for creating a safe and authenticated channel between hosts have been presented. Finally, a better replacement to the SSL protocol was created which is TLS. In this blog we will make an introduction to Transport Layer Protection (TLS) protocol.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Secure-HTTP (HTTP-S) Protocols

In this blog post, we are going to explain what Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), and Secure-HTTP (HTTP-S) protocols are and how they differ from each other.

Benefits of Separation of Duties

One of the oldest security principles still in use today is privilege separation. Simply put, it argues that no single person should have sufficient authority to cause a catastrophic event to occur. Separation of responsibilities guarantees that tasks are distributed to workers in such a way that no single employee has complete control of a process from start to finish. Separation of tasks entails each individual having a separate job, allowing everyone to specialize in a certain area.


A rootkit is a malicious software program that is designed to gain access to a computer system without being detected. Once a rootkit is installed on a system, it can be used to remotely control the system, steal sensitive data, or perform other malicious activities. Rootkits are difficult to detect and remove and can be used to establish a persistent presence on a system.

Remote Access Authentication: PAP and CHAP

This blog article will discuss two username/password authentication protocols: Password Authentication Protocol and The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol. By the completion of this page, you’ll know if you should use one of two methods for authentication of point-to-point packets.

How Do You Prevent Brute Force Attacks?

If you want to recover a password, the simplest method is to use a brute force attack. Is brute force really effective? Well, many users appear to utilize birthdates or other historical dates as passwords, or other readily guessed numbers or phrases. Today we are going to examine what a brute force attack is and how we can protect our systems against it.

Server-Client Communication Security: Digital Certificates

In this blog, we will take a quick look at PKI, and examine how digital certificates assist in the security of interactions between a server and an end-user, the components of a digital certificate, and the function of certificate authorities.

Site-to-Site VPN

As we have learned, a Virtual Private Network allows two networks to communicate securely across a public network. A VPN also enables a server-to-server connection, as opposed to a client-to-server connection, allowing two networks to establish an extended intranet or extranet. In this blog post, we will cover how we can connect distant branches of our company or partners securely with a site-to-site VPN.

Introduction to Virtual Private Network (VPN)

It is usually suggested to have your own private dedicated line between multiple places for safe connections. However, this approach is quite expensive since various sites must be connected by different cables, and building cables across geographies is an expensive operation. Also, maintenance is another problem. To address these issues, a virtual private network (VPN) was created.

Data Security Management

Data security management is a process that provides an organization with an effective means to protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of its data. It aims to ensure that information systems are designed, operated, and monitored in a way that protects the privacy rights and safety of individuals who use or access them. For Data Security Management to be successful, it must be integrated into all aspects of organizational governance. Importance of Data Security It assures the implementation of technologies that increase the companies’ visibility into where and how their critical data is stored and used.

Cross-Site Request Forgery

Cross-site request forgery (CSRF) is a type of attack that allows an attacker to do unauthorized actions on behalf of a user. A CSRF attack happens when a malicious site sends a request to a victim site, causing the victim site to perform an action intended by the attacker. This can be used to steal information, such as login passwords, or to take acts on the user’s behalf, such as moving funds from their account.

The Biba Model: A comparison between Bell-laPadula

For many civilian companies, integrity must be favored over confidentiality. As a result of this necessity, numerous integrity-focused security approaches were created, such as Biba and Clark-Wilson. In the following blog post, we are going to look at the Biba Model and discuss its unique characteristics for securing the integrity of data and make a comparison with the Bel-LaPadula (BLP) model.

The Attacker Mindset: The DAD Triad

We typically define security as the total of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. These three components (which are known as the CIA triad) are the foundations of any well-designed information security practice. We adopt security policies in enterprises or individually model the CIA triad from a protection perspective. However, attackers have their own model too. This model consists of three pillars: disclosure, alteration, and denial (which is also abbreviated as the “DAD” triad). In this blog post, we are going to examine each of the DAD triad components and how they connect to their CIA triad equivalents.

Identification and Authentication Methods: Kerberos

How do so many people find a way to access resources securely? Well, in this blog post we are going to explore a network authentication protocol that is named Kerberos.

Different types of vulnerability scanners

A vulnerability assessment is the process of detecting, assessing, and prioritizing vulnerabilities in computer systems, networks, and applications. A vulnerability assessment’s purpose is to offer data that may be utilized to make judgments about where to allocate resources to address vulnerabilities. A vulnerability assessment can be conducted using a variety of approaches, with the most appropriate method depending on the specific system under assessment and the assessment’s objectives. In this article let us look at different types of vulnerability assessment tools.

Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) Vulnerabilities

XSS attacks are a type of injection in which malicious scripts are injected into trusted websites. XSS attacks occur when an attacker uses a web application to send malicious code to a different end user, typically in the form of a browser side script. The flaws that allow these attacks to succeed are quite common, and they occur whenever a web application uses user input within the output it generates without validating or encoding it.

Buffer overflow vulnerabilities

A buffer overflow is a type of computer security vulnerability that occurs when data is stored in a memory buffer that exceeds the capacity of the buffer. This can result in data corruption or the execution of malicious code. Programming errors are frequently the source of buffer overflow vulnerabilities. A programmer, for example, may fail to check the size of a user’s input before storing it in a buffer. If the input exceeds the buffer size, the excess data will overflow into adjacent memory locations. Buffer overflow attacks take advantage of these flaws by supplying input that is larger than the intended buffer. In the case of malicious input, this can cause the program to crash or allow the attacker to execute code on the target system.

Introduction to Access Controls

Every organization has resources that are used by various entities on a daily basis. The retrieval of information from these resources is referred to as access. These resources, however, should be accessed in a way that does not jeopardize their security. Access controls enable organizations to ensure secure access to resources.

What are software backdoors?

Some of the most dominant risks to systems are in the form of malicious software, which is also known as malware. Attackers meticulously construct, write, and build malware programs to breach security and/or cause damage. These programs are designed to be self-contained and do not necessarily require user involvement or the presence of the attacker to execute their damage.

File system security: Overview of File System

The file system is one of the most essential parts of your operating system that you must safeguard. To secure our file systems, first, we need to understand their structure and nature. In this blog post, we are going to do a very quick primer on the introduction to file systems.

Network protocols explained: ARP, DNS, DHCP, HTTP and FTP

Our first blog post about network protocols covered the foundational protocols TCP/IP and UDP. In the second and third parts of the blog, we will cover other network protocols that almost all rely on TCP/IP or UDP to function.

Network Security with a Packet Filtering Firewalls

Network security tools ensure that you are well equipped to deal with any malicious attempts. In this blog, we are going to explore the network layer firewall mechanism and its pros and cons.

What is a Firewall?

A firewall is an essential component of any organization’s security infrastructure. It can be implemented as hardware, software, or a hybrid of the two. A firewall can help to protect a network from attack by restricting unauthorized incoming traffic. A firewall is often used to create a barrier between a trusted internal network and an untrustworthy external network, such as the Internet.

Securing Confidentiality of Data using the Bell-LaPadula Model

In an organization, you can secure information in many ways. In this article, we are going to give a general overview of the importance of security models and discuss the rules for securing data using the Bell La Padula Model and its benefits and disadvantages.

Components of an Information System

An information system (IS) is the full combination of software, hardware, data, people, procedures, and networks that enables the company to utilize information resources.

Common network devices you need to know

A network is a collection of computers that are linked together by a wired or wireless connection in order for them to communicate electronically or access shared network resources. A variety of hardware devices are used to build and extend a computer network. This article will go over the various network devices and their functions.

Data Loss Prevention - Part 2

Data Loss Prevention (DLP) is a security mechanism that detects sensitive data and alerts administrators when it leaves the network or is accessed without authorization. Endpoint security, email, cloud-based solutions, and mobile device management software are all examples of DLP products. DLP deployments may be viewed as a barrier or a delay in some workers’ and departments’ day-to-day job tasks and obligations. However, when properly configured, a DLP system may be a valuable asset to a corporation, supporting a variety of security goals and compliance. The danger of data loss (both customer and company) rises when organizations change their working environments and support their IT infrastructure with the introduction of new and innovative technology.

Different types of cyber attacks

The goal of cyber-attacks is to disable computers, disrupt computer systems, steal data, obtain illegal access to computer systems, or delete data. It steals data by exploiting flaws or misconfigurations in computer code, which leads to cybercrime. Attacks can be launched remotely from anywhere in the world. A cyber attack is designed in such way that it causes significant damage to an organization.

How do intrusion detection systems work?

The intrusion detection system (IDS) is a security system that monitors, detects, and protects a network from malicious activity. IDS works by alerting when an intrusion is detected. IDS are widely used to strengthen an organization’s security because they monitor all incoming and outgoing traffic for any malicious activity. There are two kinds of IDS: active and passive.

Data Loss Prevention - Part 1

Data Loss Prevention (DLP) strives to prevent unauthorized disclosure of an organization’s data assets. Unsecure access control to sensitive resources, such as files containing confidential data, makes data leakage very easy; hence, DLPs play a key role in protecting an organization’s data from unauthorized access. Different DLP solutions may differ in how they identify threats, and what action should be taken if an adversary breaches security controls.

The OSI Model

The electronic transfer of information (audio, video, or data) over vast distances between electronic equipment is known as telecommunication. Data can be transmitted using either wired (coaxial, ethernet, or fiber optic connections) or wireless techniques. Telecommunication and networking employ a variety of processes, devices, software, and protocols. Over time, different models have evolved to better describe data flow between devices utilizing various protocols. A protocol is a set of instructions or rules that govern data transmission between electronic devices. Most operating systems and protocols adhere to the OSI model as an abstract framework. The purpose of this article is to explore this model and how it may be used to visualize the process of data transmission over a network.

What is Data Governance?

Data Governance involves defining policies that govern how data generated within organizations is managed, accessed, shared, and owned. Governance refers to rules, regulations, and procedures developed to achieve organizational objectives. This type of policy sets out conditions under which organizational processes, functions, and services operate.

What is vulnerability scanning?

After identifying a target system and conducting early intelligence gathering, the hacker can focus on gaining access to the target system. We can think of scanning as an extension of reconnaissance, in which the attacker gains a wide array of data like: which operating system is in use, active services, any configuration vulnerabilities. After the collection of this useful information, the hacker can plan an attack strategy based on these findings.

What is Security Testing and Penetration Testing?

Security testing is the process of assessing and testing software’s security by discovering and mitigating various vulnerabilities and security concerns. Security testing’s main purpose is to ensure that software or applications are resistant to cyber-attacks and may be used safely.

Network protocols explained: what are they, and why are they important?

Network protocols determine how data is transmitted between devices in a network. These protocols allow devices to communicate with each other without any regard for the device’s design or internal workings. Networking protocols play a critical role in today’s digital communications.

What is Ransomware?

Ransomware is a type of malicious software that is either cryptographic or locker-based. Cryptographic ransomware encrypts the victim’s system, devices, folders, and or files, making them unable to read and use without a key. Locker ransomware locks the screen and ignores user input. After a successful attack, the adversaries usually demand a ransom from the victim for decryption or unlocking. Ransomware is often delivered by email as an attachment, but it may also spread via social media messages, pop-ups, or infected websites. The ransomware process usually starts with executing a malicious file on the victim’s computer. This file will download other files that connect to a malicious server. After encrypting files or locking systems, notes are released to inform users about the ransomware and the payment procedures to receive the key. An example of a large-scale ransomware attack is WannaCry in 2017, which infected approximately 230,000 computers in over 150 countries.

Botnets and Zombies

Zombies and botnets are two of the most popular forms of malware used to attack computer systems maliciously. Botnets are virtual networks of zombies created by attackers who use bot programs to remotely control susceptible computers. Botnets can be used to conduct coordinated attacks against other computing resources, such as targeted distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks. The emergence of bot malware has been distinguished by a shift in motive from curiosity and fame-seeking to illegal financial gain.

Person-in-the-Middle Attack (PITM)

A person-in-the-middle attack is a type of cyber-attack in which the attacker intercepts communication between two parties (the user and the application) in order to obtain information or data. This type of attack can be difficult to detect and the primary objective is to steal sensitive information like login credentials, personal information, and financial details. Let’s take a look at what a person-in-the-middle attack is.

A simple introduction to Red, Blue and Purple Teaming

There are three types of methods that an organization uses to secure its infrastructure: Red Teaming, Blue Teaming, and Purple teaming. Each concept takes a different strategy for safeguarding the organization. Let’s take a look at what red, blue, and purple teaming is all about.

Understanding Denial of Service Attacks

A denial of service attack is an attempt to prevent intended users from accessing a system or network resource. Denial of service attacks are frequently used to target a specific person or group, but they can be used against anybody who uses the Internet. A denial of service attack can be carried out in a number of methods, but the most frequent is to flood a targeted system with requests.

Visual signs of a malware infection

There are a few things to check for if you suspect your computer has been infected with malware. To begin, look for any strange or unexpected conduct. If your computer becomes noticeably slower or apps crash for no apparent reason, this might be an indication of infection. Another red flag is the appearance of additional toolbars or icons that you did not install, or if your home page has been modified without your consent. The best thing to do if you suspect malware is to perform a scan using a trusted anti-virus application. This will help in the detection and removal of any dangerous software that may be present on your PC.

Intrusion detection systems

Malicious or anomalous activities can occur on a system at any time, making the presence of intrusion detection systems critical. The job of an intrusion detection system is to detect suspicious activities, while monitoring a system or network and analyzes data to identify potential incidents. Intrusion detection systems can be host based or network based.

Common delivery malware infection methods

There are many ways that malware can be delivered to a system. Some common methods are through email attachments, downloading infected files from the internet, and running infected programs. Malware can also be delivered through exploit kits that take advantage of vulnerabilities in programs and operating systems. Once malware is on a system, it can spread to other systems and devices on the network.

Types of Malware

Malware is a broad term that refers to any software with a malicious intent. Malware comes in a variety of forms, each with its own method of infecting your computer. These methods may include attempting to obtain unauthorized control of your computer systems, stealing personal information, encrypting critical information, or causing other harm to your computer. Damage can sometimes be irreversible. Email attachments, infected websites, torrents, and shared networks are all popular malware sources.

Cyber Kill Chain

The concept of “kill chain” is used in the cybersecurity industry to describe how attackers get into a system and accomplish their goals. Cyber security professionals can implement countermeasures and defend their systems, by understanding how attackers can hack a system successfully.

Physical, Technical and Administrative Controls

Understanding what cyber risks exist the first step in preventing them. Cyber threats can take various forms and include any type of threat that uses technology to harm people or organizations. In this article, we introduce three types of security controls that can protect individuals and organizations from cyber attacks.

Threat actors in cyberspace

In information security, there are several types of threat actors. Some are motivated by money, others by political or ideological motivations, whereas others by a desire to harm others. The most prevalent sort of threat actor is the profit-driven criminal. There are, however, numerous state-sponsored actors who are frequently driven by political or ideological motivations. These state-sponsored actors may be very dangerous since they have resources that most criminals do not.

Types of hackers

A hacker is a person who uses technical expertise to gain unauthorized access to computer systems or data. Hackers may do this for a variety of purposes, including stealing sensitive information, causing damage or disruption, or simply playing around with the system. Some hackers work alone, while others may be part of a wider organization.

Types of Security Threats

Any form of a malicious attack on an electronic device or system is referred to as a “cyber security threat.” There are several forms of cyber security threats, but the most prevalent include malware, system failures, unauthorized access, and social engineering. Cyber security risks may be harmful to both individuals and organizations; thus, it is critical to understand the various forms of dangers that exist. Understanding the various forms of cyber security dangers available allows you to better plan to defend yourself and your assets from them.

AAA of security

An organization must employ the three “A’s” of security to keep our computer systems and data safe: authentication, authorization, and accounting. Authentication is the process of verifying that someone is who they say they are. The process of ensuring that someone has the necessary authority to access a certain resource is known as authorization. Accounting is the process of documenting and tracking all system activity. If we apply all three of these security standards, we can assure that our systems are safe from unwanted access and misuse.

A short introduction to the major cyber disciplines

In today’s interconnected world, a strong understanding of cyber security is essential for individuals and businesses alike. There are many cyber disciplines, but some of the most important include vulnerability management, incident response, forensics, security architecture, security engineering, and governance, risk and compliance (GRC). By understanding these key concepts, you can better protect yourself and your organization from online threats.

Cybersecurity for pre-beginners

Cyber security has become a significant priority for both organizations and people in recent years. The potential for cyberattacks has grown exponentially as people’s reliance on technology and the internet has grown. The technique of securing computer systems and networks from illegal access or theft is known as cyber security. This can be achieved through a variety of tools, including firewalls, encryption, and intrusion detection.

CIA Triad

The CIA Triad plays an essential role in cyber security. The Triad is an acronym that stands for confidentiality, integrity, and availability. All three principles are essential to the security of information and systems. Confidentiality ensures that information is not disclosed to unauthorized individuals or entities. Integrity ensures that information is not altered or destroyed in an unauthorized manner. Availability ensures that authorized users have access to information and systems when they need them. The Triad is significant because it helps organizations secure their data from unauthorized access and modification.

What are Zero-Day Vulnerabilities and Who Uses Them?

A zero-day vulnerability is a computer security flaw that is unknown to the general public and vendors until it is actively exploited and caught in the wild. Zero-days or 0-days are highly sought after by threat actors because they are highly effective at obtaining initial access on a target system.